Developmental authority over females. Children in the 19th century

Developmental Psychology is a certain part of psychology which studies cognitive, physical and social changes throughout one’s life. Developmental Psychology also scientifically studies the changes that a human presents over time. The way we view the child in modern history has changed over time. Back to Ancient Rome, a child’s life was very harsh. Adults believed the only way to see results from teaching was serve beatings and males were always given a authority over females. Children in the 19th century were made labour work in textile factories, coal mines and chimneys. Thankfully, things have gratefully improved in this current century as children are healthier, better fed, have better clothes and have access to toys. Charles Darwin is ascribed with creating the first study of Developmental psychology. This is because in 1877 he published a short paper detailing the developmental forms based on observations of his own infant son.The main themes of Developmental Psychology are Prenatal Development, Brain Development, Physical Development, Motor Development, Perceptual Development and Sensory Development. The two topics that I have picked are Prenatal Development and Brain Development and I will discuss how these two aspects of Developmental Psychology will be of benefit to myself and others as a prospective Montessori teacher/ Early Years Educator. I believe that being familiar with Developmental Psychology will be a benefit to me as a Montessori teacher. I think it can contribute a lot to me as a teacher to improve the quality of the learning process. Knowledge of Developmental Psychology can help me as a teacher understand differences in student characteristics as each student has different characteristics. It can also help me relate to the uniqueness of the individual i.e there learning styles, level of development. Understanding Developmental Psychology allows me as a Montessori teacher/Early Years Educator to guidance nessaracary for my students aged between birth and six and it allows allows me to give feedback to the students parents/guardian on their level of development such as how I think they can improve on different aspects of development or if there is a lack of progress. Finally, knowledge of Developmental Psychology demonstrates that children develop along different areas i.e cognitive, social, physical, therefore a child may be highly developed in one area and not developed in another. This must be taken into account for me as a teacher.Jean Piaget(1896-1980) was a theorist who worked for several decades on children’s cognitive development. He stated that there are certain stages of cognitive development a child must go through and until they reach that stage they are incapable of learning certain features. He used the example of pouring a equal amount of water from a container of one shape and size to a container of another shape and size. Until the child has reached the concrete operational stage, the child will say that the second container of water has a different quantity than the first. I think this is extremely important for me as a Early Years Educator to know because you cannot teach the child there is a equal amount of water until the child reaches that stage. “The early years of human development establish the basic architecture and function of the brain” –  Mustard JF. Early Brain Development and Human Development. In: Tremblay RE, Boivin M, Peters RDeV, eds. Encyclopedia on Early Childhood Development online. http://www.child-encyclopedia.com/importance-early-childhood-development/according-experts/early-brain-development-and-human. Published February 2010. Accessed January 24, 2018. A child’s brain encounters a stunning period of development from birth to six years of age. In every physical change throughout Developmental Psychology, the brain is involved in some way. Genes ( a part of DNA that is located on a chromosome and that controls the development of one or more characteristics and is also the unit where genetic information is passed from a parent to offspring) is the blueprint for the brain. The construction of the brain is carried out by the child’s environment and experiences throughout the early years of his/her life.  Before birth there are approx 100 billion neurons (these transmit messages to and from the brain through electrical impulses across structures called synapses, which connect one neuron to another) which handle information in the brain. The primary structure in the brain is created in the first two trimesters of prenatal development. The brain has two hemispheres. The cerebral cortex is the outer layer of cells of the human brain and its the largest part of the brain and is responsible for thought and action. The cerebral cortex has 4 major areas which are called lobes. Frontal lobes are responsible for personality, voluntary movement and thinking. Occipital lobes are mainly responsible for vision. Temporal lobes are responsible for language, memory and hearing. Parietal lobes are responsible for control, attention and knowing location. While the baby is still in the womb, brain development goes through 3 stages called trimesters. The first trimester of brain development begins almost straight after conception, in the embryonic stage of prenatal development.The brain grows at a rapid rate and it begins functioning, working on the placement of all major organs and systems. The nervous system begins forming and a pear shaped neural tube develops from the ectoderm (one of 3 germ layers in the early embryo) around days 18-24. This tube then closes at the top and bottom around the 4th week of the first trimester. In the second trimester the cerebral cortex grows in thickness and complexity. Myelin begins to appear on the axons (axons transmit information away from the cell body). “Your baby’s nerves become covered with myelin, a protective insulation that speeds messages between nerve cells” – Murkoff. H 2017. What to expect. ONLINE Available at: https://www.whattoexpect.com/pregnancy/fetal-development/fetal-brain-nervous-system/. Accessed 24 January 2018. Myelination ( the process in which myelin allows nerve impulses to move more quickly) continues and allows for faster processing of information in the second trimester. In the third trimester the cerebral cortex begins to carry out new functions such as foetal breathing and it can also support early learning. In year one (infancy) the brain is still developing rapidly. It’s necessary that the child is protected from falls and injuries. Newborns recognise familiar human faces and can distinguish mother’s voice from other voices. The brain is 25% of its adult weight. In year two, the brain is now 75% of its adult weight. The biggest change is in the brains language area, which are developing more synapses and becoming more interconnected. There is a higher rate of myelination and this means the brain can perform more complex tasks. In year 3 cognitive abilities continue to improve and consolidate. The child has a better understanding of cause and effect. It’s so important for all Montessori teachers and Early Childhood Educators to have some knowledge of Brain Development. I know for sure that my knowledge of brain development will be of huge benefit to me as a prospective Montessori teacher. Talking, caring and providing a fun learning environment is essential for healthy brain development in the early years of birth to 3 years. The experiences and environment a child has in the first years of his/her life determines the strength and function of the brains system as brain development is not solely based on genetics. “Our education system and entire society cannot afford to continue to allow large numbers of children to miss out on the positive experiences they need in infancy and early childhood; the costs in terms of lost potential and increasing rates of emotional and behavioral problems, are too high. Brain research show us what children need; our challenge is to ensure that every child receives it!” – Deborah McNelis. 2009. Brain Insights. ONLINE Available at:  http://braininsights.blogspot.ie/2009/03/why-is-brain-development-awareness-so.html. Accessed 24 January 2018.Montessori teachers and Early Years Educators should be aware of this knowledge of Brain Development so they can supply a loving, caring, fun and healthy environment in there workplace. This will therefore promote healthy development. I have seen many examples of promoting healthy brain development while on my placement. The most striking being whenever a young infant falls over, the trained teachers working with me rush over to ensure the baby is okay and they always check if they have any bumps, cuts or bruises. The second topic I picked for this assignment is Prenatal Development. Prenatal Development begins with fertilization and ends with the child being born lasting between 266 and 280 days. Pregnancy lasts between 40 days and 9 months and these weeks are divided into 3 stages. These 3 stages are called Germinal. Embryonic and Foetal. The Germinal stage begins at conception and ends when the zygote spends roughly a week floating down the fallopian tube to the uterus. Rapid cell division occurs in this stage. One week after conception, the new group of cells is now called the blastocyst. The blastocyst has 3 layers, the Ectoderm which becomes the nervous system and the skin, the Endoderm which becomes the digestive system and the respiratory system and the Mesoderm which becomes the muscle and skeletal system. The Germinal stage is the most crucial stage and the mother needs to be very careful as there is a high chance of miscarriage. The next stage is the Embryonic stage. This develops within the amniotic sac, under the lining of the uterus on one side. This stage takes place 2-8 weeks after conception. The formation of most internal and external body organs occurs in this stage. The embryo elongates and this is when you can first see the child’s human shape. The neural tube develops and around day 16 heart and lung vessels begin to function. The heart pumps fluid through the vessels at about day 20 and the next day red blood cells develop.All the organs are formed around 10 weeks after fertilization( not the brain or spinal cord which continue to develop)