It to grow into an independent, respectful, and responsible

It is known that the way a parent chooses to raise their child has a massive influence on how the child will develop throughout their lifespan. “…parenting style is conceptualized as the values parents hold with regard to the nature of their parenting, including their roles and responsibilities as parents, which are reflected in the practices and behaviors they employ when interacting with their child” (Estlein, 2016). Whatever a child is taught by their parents as they grow will be relevant through the rest of the child’s life; values and morals are a large piece of what makes a growing individual unique. It is important to recognize that there are definitions of styles of parenting exist. Though not all parents fit into these styles and their definitions, they are useful in recognizing and utilizing key concepts that may be beneficial in raising a child who holds respectable morals and values and is able to grow into an independent, respectful, and responsible individual as they make their way through the lifespan. In the late 1960s, Diana Baumrind developed a theoretical model of the three types of parenting styles that are still prevalent in society today. There are three main styles of parenting: Authoritarian parenting, Authoritative parenting, and Permissive parenting. Authoritarian parenting describes a style parenting that is strict and often “cold.” The Authoritarian style of parenting has decreased in popularity in recent years, but it does still exist in society today and is still relevant the in development of a child being raised by Authoritarian parents. The Authoritarian parent is one who has strict rules for their children, but does not reinforce a child with love and “warmth” when the child has successfully accomplished a task. The child or children of an Authoritarian household does not have a major influence on decisions made within the family, and they are often expected to stay in their place (van Vleet, Bodman, 2016). The Authoritarian parent often does not give fair reasoning behind rules and why they are in place; reasoning for specific family values are vague in order for a parent to ensure that the children respect and obey these rules and values. An Authoritarian parent uses an assertive style of punishment, whether it be physical punishment or withholding affection from the children, it is made to teach the child to behave properly (van Vleet, Bodman 2016). The child of an Authoritarian household may or may not benefit from this style of parenting, research is not consistent enough for a precise conclusion. “Children of authoritarian parents tend to be dependent on their parents. They also tend to be withdrawn, less sociable, and vulnerable to stress and depression. On the other hand, some studies, although inconclusive, show that, as high demandingness is positively associated with instrumental competence, children of authoritarian parents tend to perform moderately well in school” (Estlein, 2016).The Authoritative style of parenting contains balance. An Authoritative parent is likely to expect a child to obey the rules and follow the values of the family, but they are also active in reinforcing a child’s good behavior and their accomplishments. Rules are not flexible in an Authoritative household and expectations of a child are still held high, but a child’s good behavior is responded to in a much more nurturing and “warm” way than the style of an Authoritarian parent. The child’s needs and desires are acknowledged and supported by the Authoritative parent, creating a mutual respect and bond between a child and their parent or parents (Sweeney, 2016). It is important that a child has this type of open interaction with their parents, when a child feels as though they are valued and respected by the members of their family, they are much more likely to respond well to firm rules and will meet expectations of their parents with ease. Because of the balance that exists in an Authoritative household, a child of an Authoritative parent is likely to develop into a well adjusted, independent, and responsible individual. “In addition, they provide non-punitive discipline in conjunction with acknowledging and supporting their children’s needs and wants, interacting in a nurturing manner, encouraging open and honest communication, and valuing their children’s individuality” (Sweeney, 2016).There are two aspects in defining the Permissive style of parenting, indulgent or neglectful. When a Permissive parent is indulgent with their child, they are often very responsive to the child’s behavior, making this parent appear to be the most nurturing and loving compared to the other styles of parenting. ” Because of their high levels of responsiveness, indulgent parents are seen as nurturing and loving and as more of a friend than a parent” (Rutledge, Swindle, 2016). The indulgent Permissive parent is not likely to use harsh punishment on their child, as they allow the child to decide what is best for them; they feel as though the child has a right to their own decisions and feelings, and that they should not intrude upon the child’s desires. There is also the neglectful Permissive parent. This type of Permissive parent is often distant from their child; they are not highly responsive in any situation a child may face. The neglectful Permissive parent lack emotional participation in the child’s life, and often appears to be distant because they are too caught up in their own endeavors (Rutledge, Swindle, 2016). The Permissive parent, regardless of whether the are indulgent or they are neglectful, often does not use any techniques of discipline and they typically avoid confrontation with the child. When a Permissive parent does choose to use discipline to show the child that they are not behaving appropriately, this type of parent will primarily rely on bribery and reasoning; “if you stop screaming inside of the store, you can have a piece of candy.” This style of parenting is not beneficial for a child’s development and often leads to negative outcomes for the child later in life. The child sees the way that their Permissive parent lacks participation in their emotional states and assumes that the parent is granting the emotion or the behavior that the child is participating in as acceptable. The distant that the Permissive parent allows between them and their child may lead to the child growing into an individual that does not recognize or consider the feelings of others around them. “Further, the child?centered focus of permissives creates few opportunities for children to learn to show concern or consideration for the feelings of others” (Rutledge, Swindle, 2016). The child of a Permissive parent may lack feelings of empathy and understanding as they develop, leading to potentially unhealthy and impulsive behavior later in life. It is extremely important that a child is allowed the opportunity to grow into a self sufficient and responsible adult. Though there does exist a model of the three main styles of parenting, there are many different variations even within the three styles that are defined by Diana Baumrind. It is important to recognize that each style that she lists is relevant in developmental psychology today; a Permissive parenting style may be most beneficial for one family, whereas the Authoritarian parenting style may work best for another family. Each parenting style is open to variability in terms of the outcome for the child later in life. Every family is different. Socioeconomics, education, and cultural backgrounds may play a role in determining what parenting style works best for who. “Nevertheless, the extensive body of empirical evidence accumulated over the last several decades suggests that the typology of parenting styles is a useful framework for understanding parental dynamics and the potential outcomes they may have for children” (Estlein, 2016). There is no definition of a parenting style that is perfect because of the variety that exists in the upbringing of children across the globe. There are many factors that play into which parenting style is utilized the most, and why that style is used. “Generally, the authoritarian parenting style is more dominant in traditional families and among parents with low social and educational levels, whereas the authoritative style is more common in families from a higher socioeconomic status” (Estlein, 2016). Parents and children tend to grow together and form an understanding of what is going to work best for both of them and why that specific method is the most beneficial for the family. It is important to call recognition to the fact that there is not one method of parenting that is superior to another. Each different parenting style may attempt to predict the outcome of a child’s development, but there is no simple or definable outcome in a child’s development through the lifespan.