Healthy balance diet is very important for normal physical, mental,
and cognitive development in children. Processing of data through memory,
learning abilities, thinking and attention is known as cognition. Deficiency of
one or more important components in the diet results in poor physical growth &
cognitive development. Zinc plays significant role in
cognitive development in children. In Pakistan, prevalence of zinc
deficiency in children is 54.2% while 48.2% expectant mothers are zinc
deficient. Proper dietary interventions can decrease this ratio. Zinc
fortification is best solution to reduce zinc deficiency in young children. Most
generally used salt for fortification of zinc is zinc oxide. Present study will
be conducted to investigate the effect of zinc fortification on cognitive
abilities in pre-adolescents. Efficacy study will be carried out on children
with poor learning abilities who will be provided by zinc fortified chick bars.
Each bar will contain 100g chickpea flour and 4mg,6mg and 8mg of zinc oxide for
T1, T2 & T3 respectively. 40
children of age 7-11 years will be included in this group. TO will be control
group while group TI, T2 and T3 will be experimental groups and given one
energy bar respectively. Learning abilities
will be checked at the start of study and at end of intervention trials. Proximate analysis and mineral zinc
will be done to analyze the nutritional profile of energy bar. The obtained data
will be subjected to quantifiable analysis.
OF AGRICULTURE, FAISALABAD
OF HOME SCIENCES
(Synopsis for M.Sc (Hons.) Home Economics (Food and
TITLE: To Investigate Effect of Zinc Fortification
on Cognitive Development in Pre-Adolescents
Date of Admission : 09-09-2017
Date of Initiation : After
Probable Duration : 6
of Student : Mubeen Faiz
No. : 2012-ag-2520
of Supervisor : Ms. Hira Iftikar
Hira Iftikhar : (Supervisor)
Sana Arif : (Member)
Dr. Amir Shahzad : (Member)
Micronutrients are indispensable components found in food. These
are required in less amount and are important for maintenance of good health,
growth, and cognitive development as well as physical development. Deficiency
of these micronutrients is very common due to inadequate intake and less
bioavailability of these pivotal nutrients. In developing countries of the
world micronutrients deficiency is the prevalent heath problem. Over all 50% of the total population is
influenced by micronutrient insufficiency. Most common and wide spread
micronutrients deficiencies are zinc, iron, B-12 iodine and vitamin A
deficiency (Allen and Gillipsi, 2006).
Micronutrients (mineral and vitamin) are important for the
maintenance of normal metabolic process as well as process of intellectual
development. As indicated by World Health Organization more than two billion
individuals are deficient in these fundamental micronutrients (zinc, B-12 iodine and vitamin A) (WHO,2001). Youngster
and pregnant women are more prone to micronutrients deficiencies (Black, 2001;
Black et al., 2008).
Being a developing country Pakistan is also affected by
Micronutrient deficiency most susceptible group include young children and
expecting women (Bhutta et al., 2008). In
Pakistan 44% of young children are stunted and 31% have lower than normal
weight especially under 5 years of age. Due to micronutrient deficiency (zinc,
B-12 iodine and vitamin A) Pakistan is at high threat
of malnutrition (NNS, 2011). Micronutrients
deficiency or hidden hunger in young adults leads to hindrance in cognitive
development and results in delayed physical growth. (Akhtar et al., 2013).
Around the world, most wildly used strategy to reduce micronutrient
deficiency is fortification of food. (Rosado et all., 2005). It is best
strategy to combat hidden hunger in developing countries other widely methods
used for lowering micronutrients deficiencies include supplementation and food
diversification (Latham et al.,
2001). As indicated by World Health
Organization and Food and Agriculture association of United Nations process of
deliberate addition of micronutrients in food is known as food fortification.
It is one of the acknowledge leading option combat this dilemma. (UNO,2002)
Zinc is a crucial micronutrient mandatory for conventional working
of body. Brain modulation, cognitive development, genes expression DNA, RNA
metabolism is some functions performed by zinc. Zinc is required by number of
proteins for their normal functioning. (Trsans,2008). Recent studies declare
that zinc insufficiency is a standout amongst the most hazardous nutritional deficiencies (Black et
al,2008). Zinc deficiency overwhelm Approximately 95.4% of total population(Hettiarachchi
et al., 2004). Zinc inadequacy is related with expanded danger of
diseases (Hotz and brown,2004; Trans,2008).
Zinc deficiency may affect by mental progress by fight in thought
advancement, neuropsychological lead and motor change. Packs in creature
displays that zinc require in the most t of the time of mental development or
in the most of youthful and pre-adulthood periods affect the academic movement
by diminishing improvement, broadening lively immediate, disappointing memory
and ability to learn. zinc supplementation accomplished better motor change and
more perkiness in low birth weight infant kids baby children and expansion
energized and utilitarian action in kids and little youths. In more settled
school going kids the information is easily proven wrong regardless, there are
check of enhanced neuropsychological points of confinement with zinc
supplementation (Bhatnagar and sunita, 2001)
Processing of data through memory, learning abilities, thinking and
attention is known as cognition. Cognitive development. zinc plays significant
role in cognitive development in children. Zinc. deficiency among micronutrient
deficiencies is associated with death of more than 800000 preschoolers each
year. pneumonia, malaria, diarrhea are other most common diseases which occurs
in children with zinc deficiency.
(Akhtar et al,2012)
allowance of zinc for males aged 6 months to 11 years is 2 to11 milligram while
that female of same age 2 to 13 milligram per day. Inadequate intake is one of
the primary reason of zinc inadequacy among people. Absorption of zinc by the
body is another contributing factor. Zinc intake can be increases by
fortification of zinc in generally consume foods. Fortification of cereals like
wheat rice and maize is significant importance in terms of availability and
affordably (Lynch, 2005). Distinctive zinc salts like zinc oxide and zinc
sulfate are used for fortification in sustenance industry. These two are most
commonly use salts because of their low economic value (WHO,2009).
According to an estimation chickpea provide 367 kilos per hundred
grams of seed. As compare to other pulses it provides 2 to 8% more lipid and 10
to 20 % more fiber. It contains 20.9% to 25.7% protein (Boye et al., 2010).
It also contains vitamin and minerals (A, K, C, B calcium, zinc, iron (Woods et
al., 2007). Gross yield of chickpea
in Pakistan is 760 thousand tons (GOP, 2013). It is important local food in
South Asia.it is best replacer of animal meat in underdeveloped countries for
Protien. (Zia-ul-Haq et al., 2007 )
Chick pea has highest ratio of protein as compared to all other
pulses. Potassium, magnesium, zinc phosphorus, niacin thiamine is also preset
in significant amount in chickpea. Number of children food foods like biscuits
breads and many other dishes are made from gram flour (Wood 2009). It also
shows many medicine and herbal affects. Its consumption results low thirsts in
and reduce the sensation of burning (Warneret al., 1995). It also helps in lower cholesterol as
well as triglycerides in blood. (Boualga et al., 2009)
Energy bars or fortified snacks consumption is an emerging trend
worldwide. commonly used material for
making such bars or snacks is cereals. these can be fortified with
micronutrients. (Ryland et al., 2010;
Painter and Prisecaru, 2002; Gonzales and Draganchuk, 2003).
To fulfill zinc deficiency, zinc fortified bars named chick bars
are introduced which can be consumed during snack times by the pre-adolescents.
develop zinc fortified chick bars, proximate & mineral analysis of bar
investigate the effect of consumption of zinc fortified bars on cognitive
development in pre-adolescents.
2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE:
Micronutrients are required in little amount, fundamental for human
body to create diverse compounds, hormones and synthetic substance needed for
development and improvement (WHO, 2009). Balance diet containing all essential
nutrients in adequate amount is best remedy for maintaining normal health and
to prevent form deficiencies. ((Hill et
al., 2005). clinical and subclinical micronutrient deficiencies affect the
cognitive development, growth and reproductive performance of individuals
Malnutrition is an extreme and life scaring state caused by an
eating regimen lacking in fundamental nutrients, mineral and vitamins. It is
evaluated that 870 million individuals are malnourished (FAO, 2010; WHO, 2001).
According to a study, in
south Asian nations, especially Pakistan and Bangladesh all kids (young ladies
instead of young men) are underweight because of terrible eating routine. In
Pakistan study was directed on, Child’s sexual orientation and family unit
sustenance weakness are related with hindering among youthful Pakistani
youngsters dwelling in urban squatter settlements. Cross-sectional study
contemplates, add up to 399 youngsters were directed. Study shows that young
lady kids more hindered than men kids (Ansari et al., 2006).
Studies indicate that most vulnerable group
for micronutrient deficiencies in developing countries are children and
pregnant women (Lotifi et al., 1996). Recommended dietary allowance of
zinc for males aged 6 months to 11 years is 2 to11 milligram while that female
of same age 2 to 13 milligram per day. Inadequate administration is one of the
essential reason of zinc deficiency among individuals. Absorption of zinc by
the body is another contributing factor. According to a recent study 61% of youngsters
of developing countries are prone to zinc deficiency due to improper zinc
intake (Brown & Wuehler , 2000; Brown et al., 2001; Haider
Bhutta, 2009 ; Yakoobet et al., 2011). Like other developing
countries zinc deficiency in Pakistan is serious public health problem. Zinc
deficiency can lead to number of problem including cognitive impermanent
stunting diarrhea low growth rate and low birth rate zinc solely bears 1.9% of
global disease burden (Trans, 2008), according to research zinc supplementation
results in improve children growth enhance cognitive development and learning
abilities (Osendarpet et al., 2001; Muller et al., 2003; Rivera et
al., 2003; Black et al., 2004 and Waller Black ,2004).
According to study
zinc supplementation has positive impact on children growth (Bhandari et
al., 2001). According to Shah and Sachdey, (2006) mass-scale
supplementation is not appropriate method for lowering zinc deficiency status.
may influence by psychological advancement by fight in consideration movement,
neuropsychological conduct and motor development. Studies in creature
demonstrates that zinc lack during the season of quick cerebrum development or
during adolescent and pre-adulthood periods influence the intellectual
advancement by diminishing movement , expanding enthusiastic conduct, hindering
memory and ability to learn. zinc supplementation brought about better motor
development and more perkiness in low birth weight infants newborn children and
increment enthusiastic and utilitarian action in babies and little children. In
more established school going kids, the information is disputable however,
there are proof of enhanced neuropsychological capacities with zinc
supplementation (Bhatnagar and sunita, 2001).
is the act of intentionally expanding the micronutrient in nourishment (WHO,
2006). Nutrient Supplementation e is apparently the best strategy for managing
far reaching supplement insufficiencies, as it has the best alternative of accomplishing
the populace divisions much of the time in danger, as variety with exertion at
adjusting person’s nourishment relying upon ideal supplement taking (Rafferty et
3. MATERIALS AND METHODS
Procurement of Raw Material
Crude material required for development of chick
bars will be acquired from nearby market of Faisalabad. Materials required for
chick bars includes chickpea flour, oil, sugar and water.
of flour and its fortification
Chickpea flour will be refined to get fine flour or powder. Refined flour is
equally divided into three parts. Different conc. of zinc salt is added in all
of chickpea bars
Energy bar will be
formed with ingredients (chickpea flour,
oil, sugar and water).
First of all flour is roasted in cooking oil. Sugar is mixed in water in a
separate pan until required consistency is obtained. Add flour in syrup &
mix it thoroughly. Mold it into required shape & cool it. Than keep it in
cool and dry place.
Proximate analysis of chickpe bars
will be done.It includes: moisture
content, ash content, crude protein, crude fat and crude fiber (AOAC, 2006).
To determine the sample moisture
content will be used hot air oven. (AACC, 2000).
To determine the sample ash content
will be used muffle furnace. (AACC, 2000).
To determine the sample protein content, Kjeldahl’s method will be
used. (AACC, 2000).
Soxhlet apparatus will be used to determine the sample fat
content . (AACC, 2000).
To determine amount of fiber
in the sample, I will use grounded
sample after fat determination. (AACC,2000).
Nitrogen free extract will also be determined (AACC, 2000).
spectrophotometer will be used for analysis of the mineral zinc in digested
sample of chickpea bars (AOAC, 2006).
children will be selected from different areas of Faisalabad. Target
Pre-adolescents (7-11Y) children will
be marked for study. 40 children of age 7-11 years will
be included in this group. In this group, children with delayed cognitive
development (learning abilities) will be selected. Cognitive development
(learning abilities) will be measured through questionnaire designed
specifically by keeping in view the level of cognitive development of
Size & Treatment Plan
Make 4 groups (A, B, C &
which test subject who meets
states will be allocated by simple
random sampling. Group A will be considered as control group with no
administration of chick bars. Group B, C and D will be experimental groups and
are given chick bars according to need respectively.
Learning abilities will be checked
through questionnaire before intervention and at the end of every month until
Obtained data will be analyzed statistically to check the level of
significance. (Steel et al. 1997).