James was educated as a protestant which did not please many English roman catholics who had hoped for a catholic son from Mary, Queen of Scots. This caused a conspiration from catholic gentlemen called the Gunpowder Plot. They aimed to blow up the House of Lords and launch a rebellion to install a Catholic regime. However, the plot’s failure provoked the English government into a series of anti-Catholic measures which further provoked a separation between James and the Protestants and Catholics on political matters. In contrast, during the English Civil War some of Charles I’s most loyal supporters were catholic gentlemen. The Gunpowder Plot symbolized English Catholic’s abandoned hopes of restoring a catholic nation. James I supported the Church of England and therefore many Puritans were not allowed to preach outside of the state church. James I conducted relationships with English puritans after they presented him with the Millenary Petition which requested reforms to the Church of England’s worship and organization. In response, James created the Hampton Court Conference. However, James sided with the bishops and the only change made was authorization of a new translation of the bible. In 1608, his persecution caused a group of separatists to flee. In August 1633 Charles I named William Laud as Archbishop of Canterbury. Laud issued the Declaration of Sports which perceived forms of relaxation and recreation on Sundays as legal. This was against the puritans belief that the Lord’s Day was only for worship. Charles’ reliance on Laud created a high-church, anti-puritan vision. His selection of a Roman Catholic wife defied a parliament that was primarily puritan and protestant and created changes close to Roman Catholicism. When James I inherited the throne from Elizabeth, the crown’s debt had been very high due to overseas wars. Under James, Robert Cecil, Earl of Salisbury tried to impose taxes on additional imports and exports to create a new source of revenue. The new impositions were stated as legal in Bates Case in 1606 but were not widely accepted to the English population. The impositions only added to the tension due to James’ belief in the divine right. The divine right states that “the monarch is the greatest thing on earth”. James took this to believe that he was god’s appointed depuy and parliament’s job was to simply advise. Like his father, Charles I believed in the divine right and that he was responsible for his actions to God alone. However, unlike his father, Charles believed his rule was about getting others to conform to his ideals. In contrast, James used more negotiation and debate. James’ placement of new customs duties on merchants was created without Parliament’s consent. Salisbury tried to create the Great Contract which would have been an agreement between the king and the commons. Commons would grant the king an annual tax and James would agree to withdraw old financial measures/powers. However, parliamentary distrust stopped it from going through. The failure of the Great Contract marked a turning point in James’s reign in which he was deprived of grants by parliament and forced to use monopoly sales to raise funds. Parliament was dissolved for seven years. Similarity, Charles I ruled without parliament for many years, from 1629-1640. This caused Charles to levy taxes on his own and to continue to collect impositions of trade goods without a vote from parliament on tonnage and poundage. The 1628 Petition of the Right further demonstrated the tense relationship between Charles and parliament. The petition states four principles: no taxes without consent of parliament, on quartering of soldiers on subjects, no imprisonment without cause, and no martial law in peacetime. Charles was forced to approve the petition. Charles agreed to the Triennial Act to ensure a meeting parliament once every three years. Due to their belief in the divine right, both James and Charles challenged the authority of parliament. Eventually, this caused the civil war in Charles’ reign in which the power of parliament versus the king was tested. Unlike his father, Charles I was a romantic. Before succeeding to the throne Charles and Buckingham put on disguised and sailed to France to conclude a marriage treaty with the daughter of Philip III. the failure of the mission caused Charles to try to persuade his father to go to war with Spain. Charles’ international relations were disrupted with the introduction of the Prayer Book in 1637. The lack of consent from the scottish people created a national movement against the prayer book. He was forced to call parliament to obtain funds to fight Scotland. Both James I and Charles I promoted favorites which caused resentment from their English subjects. James named Robert Carr, a minor Scottish noble, Earl of Somerset. James had an ideal image of creating a complete union between Scotland and England, however, parliament refused to create jointed institutions. Disagreements over the command of an army to suppress Irish revolts rose in November 1641. This led to continued disagreements between Charles and Parliament. The house was outraged by Charles’ restorment to armed force and consequently the House of Commons created a bill to raise an army under only parliamentary control. Parliament signed an alliance with Scotland guaranteeing Parliament’s agreement to reform the English church in exchanged for Scottish military help. As the war progressed Charles conducted negotiations with parliament and the Scots. In 1947 Charles created an understanding with the Scots in which he would accept Presbyterianism in Scotland in return for Scottish support of the king’s restoration to power. Both James and Charles’ scottish descendant caused them to take into account Scottish society and people in their reigns. Consequently, both felt resistance from English people and parliament about the consolidation of the two nations. During the English civil war, the Scots role demonstrated separation between Charles and parliament over royal power.