In or more people in which thoughts, feelings and

In this globalization era, people can communicate with
other people across the world only in a blink of eye. It can be done through
the kind of communication called online chat. Online chat, according to Oxford
Dictionaries, is “communication in real time between two or more simultaneous
users of a computer network (now usually the Internet).” This communication occurs
by using tools like instant messenger, for example WhatsApp Web or WA, and Line
Corporation. This application allows its participant to interact with others in
text-based or video-based between one-on-one or one-to-group. Just like other
media, online chat communication can lead the participants to achieve the core of
the conversation.

Conversation is an activity which leads its
participant to communicate and interact with other. It is needed as a basic
activity to support human being’s live. Conversation requires the participant
to use language to convey their intention, whether uses spoken or written
language. According to Cambridge Dictionary, conversation is “talk
between two or more people in which thoughts, feelings and ideas are expressed,
questions are asked and answered, or news and information are exchanged.”
Conversation can be done through verbal interaction such as face-to-face
interaction, classroom interaction, and doctor-patient
consultations, and non-verbal interaction like online chat and sign or boby language.

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In doing
conversation, there are several features or phenomena that construct the flow
of the conversation. These features then can be observed by a study which is
called conversation analysis. Conversation analysis, according to Paltridge
(2006:107), is an approach that focuses on analysing the way people manage
their everyday conversational interactions. Among those phenomena, there is
repair which appears quite often. Repair is needed when the speaker or the
hearer see the errors in conversation and want to clarify it. As Paltridge
(2006) explain that repair is a strategy the speaker uses to correct things
that they or someone else has said, and examine whether the hearer understand
the intention of the conversation or not. Repair is often done through
self-repair and other-repair.

There are
some studies that had been conducted to analyse the issue of conversation
analysis, specifically in conversational repair. For example, Gita Rahayu
(2016) analysed Repair Strategy in Television Talk Show: A Conversation
Analysis. She aimed to investigate and compare the use of repair strategy used
by Basuki Tjahaya Purnama in two different talk shows – Mata Najwa and Hitam
Putih. Then, Nur Hidayah (2015) examined An Analysis Repair on Utterances in
The Conversation of The Magic of Belle Isle Movie Manuscript. This study
designed to identify the types of repair and describe the function of repair in
the movie.  Meanwhile, Anisa Ayu
Ambarwati (2011) studied Repair in Hitam Putih Talk Show: A Conversation
Analysis. She investigated the pattern, the technique, and the factor of repair
that is used by the participant in 2 episodes of Hitam Putih talk show. Other
examples which also investigated conversational repair are repair on radio used
by the hosts (Wongkhat, 2012), repair on yahoo used by the chatters (Zaferanieh
2004), and repair from classroom lectures and presentation in university (Tang,
2011). Among those studies, there is only one research examines the repair
strategy in written text, which is Zaferanieh who analyse repair in chat
online.

Continue
the previous study which analyse repair on Yahoo chat room used by chatters,
this study tries to investigate the pattern of repair strategy that is used in
chat online. In addition, this study will also focuses on the factors that
affect the repair. This study would examine the repair in group chat (WA or
Line) to get more data of the repair. The most used nine type of repair
strategy, as mentioned in Rahayu (2016), consist of repetition, revision
(rephrasing), addition, expansion to two sentences, cue, simplification, key
word, explanation and inappropriate. This study expected to give a better
understanding on how the mistake during the written conversation, in this case
a group chat conversation, can be solved by using some strategies of repair.
Furthermore, since there are only a few example of repair analysis on written
conversation case, this study expected to have a contribution and give insight
into how CA is used to analyse written conversation.

1.1        
Aim of the study

This
study aims to investigate the type of repair strategies are used by the chatter.

 

1.2        
Outline of the study

This study is organized into five
chapters. Each chapter has different information about the study. Chapter I is
the introduction which consists of background of the study, aims of the study,
and the outline of the study. Chapter II provides information about the
literature review, such as theoretical concept and the previous studies that
have been done in the past. Chapter III describes the information about the
methodology that is used by the researcher to investigate the study. It
consists of the nature of study: whether it uses quantitative and/or qualitative,          methods of data collection: observation
and transcription. This chapter also provides the data of the study and the
stages of analysis. Chapter IV discovers the finding of the study: the general
and specific finding. Finally, chapter V presents the discussion and the
conclusion of the study drawn from the findings.

 

BAB 2

LITERATURE
REVIEW

 

1.1.       Theoretical Concept

1.1.1.      Conversation

Conversation is an activity
where the speaker and the hearer are exchanging information.

1.1.2.      Online chat

1.1.3.     
Conversation analysis

Conversation
analysis, according to Paltridge (2006:107), is an approach that focuses on
analysing the way people manage their everyday conversational interactions.
While Maynard (2013 as cited in Rheisa 2014), claims that conversation analysis
is “the study of talk as a medium for people to perform action.” Wilkinson, S. and Kitzinger, C. 2008
also states that conversation analysis focuses in study of talk-in-interaction
in order to understand the world. Therefore, conversation analysis
is a study focuses on investigating the phenomena that occur during the
interaction with language-based as a medium to perform action in order to
understand the world.

Initially, only the basic conversation such as
conversation between family members, friends or acquaintances that can be
analyse by using conversation analysis. However, in the recent time, CA has
been extended to the spoken discourse such as doctor-patient consultations,
news interviews, talk
show, and interactions in
courtrooms and classrooms (Paltridge, 2006, p.107). This study focuses on
several aspects, such as the sequence of utterance (adjacency pairs),
preferences for particular combination of utterance (preference organization)
turn taking, feedback, repair, conversational opening and closing, discourse
markers, and response tokens.

1.1.4.     
Repair

Repair is an important strategy that is used when
the speaker or the participant tries to correct or resolve the miscommunication
and the mistake during the conversation interaction. An ‘organization of
repair’ operates in conversation, which addressed to the problem that occurs in
speaking, hearing, and understanding (Schegloff et al, 1977). There are two
main types of repair pattern according to Schegloff: self-repair and
other-repair. Self-repair is a type of repair where the repairs are done by
speaker or the one who makes a mistake of what has been said before. On the
other hand, other-repair is done by another speaker or by the hearer. These two types of repair
can be arrived

Richard Nordquist defines repair as the process by
which the speaker recognizes a speech error and tries to correct it by
repeating what has been said before with the right one. It can be called as
speech repair, conversational repair, self-repair, linguistic repair,
reparation, false start, accommodation, and restart. Whereas, Finegan on his
fifth edition book Langauge: Its
Structure and Use, states that repair happens when the speaker needs to
correct herself or another speaker, to edit the previous statement, and the
restate something
(Finegan, 2008).

Another definition of repair derives from Liddicoat
(2007 as cited in Khodadady 2012) who claims repair as a mechanism of
conversation. It refers to the process where the speakers can deal with the
problem arise in their talk. Thus, it can be summarized that repair is a tool
or method that is used by the speakers to correct the mistakes during
conversation through self-repair or other-repair.

According to Finegan (2008), there are four possibilities of repair
patterns, which are:

1.       
Self-initiated-self-repaired: it occurs when the
initiation and the repair is done by the speaker itself.

2.       
Other-initiated-self-repaired: it occurs when the initiation of doing repair is
come from other or the hearer, while the repair is done by the speaker.

3.       
Self-initiated-other-repaired: this type of repair strategy happens when the first
speaker initiate the repair, but the one who repair the mistake is the second
speaker or the hearer.

4.       
Other-initiated-other-repaired: it occurs when the initiation of doing repair and
the repair is done by the second speaker or the hearer.

 

4.1.       Previous Study

There are
several studies which
also conducted to analyse the repair in conversation. For
example, Gita Rahayu (2016) analysed Repair Strategy in Television Talk Show: A
Conversation Analysis. In this paper, she aimed
to investigate repair strategy used by Basuki Tjahaya Purnama in two different
talk shows – Mata Najwa and Hitam Putih. Besides,
she also tried to compare the repair strategy used by Ahok in each talk show.
The result showed that there are three strategies used by Ahok in those
talkshow: self-initiated
and self-repair, other-initiated and self-repair, and self-initiated and
other-repair; Ahok used different strategies for different talk
show. The difference apparently occurred as an influence from different format
of talk show.

Then, Nur
Hidayah (2015) investigated repair in her paper, An Analysis Repair on Utterances
in The Conversation of The Magic of Belle Isle Movie Manuscript. This study focused to examine the
types of repair in the movie manuscript and
describe the function of repair in the movie. From this analysis, the result showed that repair strategies in this
movie manuscript are self-repair and other-repair. In addition, the function of
the repair used are to ask, to clarified, to replaced, to suggest, to
assert, to explain and to convince.

Meanwhile,
Anisa Ayu Ambarwati (2011) studied Repair in Hitam Putih Talk Show: A Conversation
Analysis. The paper purposed to identify the
pattern, the technique, and the factor of repair used by the participant in 2
episodes of Hitam Putih talk show. From this
paper found that the participant used almost all types of repair with the self-initiated and self-repaired
appeared as the most dominant pattern. The highest frequent technique applied in the data
is repeating part of the utterance
technique. Moreover, all
factors that potentially affect the speaker to initiate the repairs also
appeared with speaker awareness of
his/her own mistake as the most occur.

Other previous studies are repair on radio used by the
hosts (Wongkhat, 2012) which revealed that repair
to make a jokes are not only other-repair, but also self-repair; conversation analysis in online chat used by
the chatters (Zaferanieh 2004) discovered the use of turn
taking, repair, adjacency pair, and also emoticons in online chat. The last is repair from classroom lectures and presentation in university (Tang,
2011).

 

BAB III

METHODOLOGY

3.1        
Nature of
study

This paper used descriptive qualitative approach as the method to
analyse the data. Qualitative approach used since the data focused on the
detail of the word or text rather than number. As Creswell (2013, p.23)
explains, qualitative approach is applied to the data which focus on the text,
picture, open-ended data, and information in figures and tables. The result
then presented in detailed description in the form of sentence to explain the phenomenon
or the problem as detail as possible. 

 

3.2        
Methods
of data collection

The data, in this case the conversation, was taken from the online chat
in WA and Line. It was taken from 4 different group chat; two from WA and two
from Line. The researcher was observed the conversation between the
participants in the group chat for 5 days since December 15, 2017 until
December 20, 2017. The researcher then selected the pairs of interaction which
suitable with the aims of the study. After that, the data was transcribed to
make the process of analysis easier.

 

3.3        
Data

 

3.4        
Stages of
Analysis

The study
involved following stages: (1) identifying the conversation with the repair in
online chat done by the participants (2) classifying the data into the
categorization of repair strategy (3) and drawing the conclusion.