any organization and or company to function effectively, it is imperative that
the correct types of people are recruited. It goes without saying that Leaders
and Managers play a pivotal role in steering the company to the right
direction. After all, why would one start a business if they are not intending
to grow their business to make capital? Equally important is the ability to
train current workforce so that they add value to the company. Not only should
the company be concerned leaders and managers, but effective teams need to be
put together to implement strategies beneficial to the company. The purpose of
this paper is to discuss effective Leadership & Management and to discuss
Team Effectiveness and it’s importance. The paper will also assist to prepare
Personal Development Plan.
Leadership and Management
Concept of Leadership and Management
Kotter, (1990) explains
Leadership as about coping with change whereas Management as about coping with
complexities. According to him, leaders establish direction by developing a
vision of the future; then they align people by communicating this vision and
inspiring them to overcome hurdles. Good management is about bringing order and
consistency by drawing up formal plans, designing organisation structures, and
monitoring results against plans.
When one studies the
definitions of Leadership and Management carefully, they both speak to one
another. Change is inevitable; the world is always revolving, times have
changed. Technology is advancing daily. Generation Y and Z are penetrating the
world of work. A good leader has to learn to cope with change to accommodate or
make inroads for a new type of people and technological advancement. A good
manager has to deal with the complexities. Order is required if the
organization is to achieve its objective. People are more trusting of a person
who is consistent in their approach as a Manager.
theory/Great man theory – Robbins, Odendaal and Roodt, G.
(2001) writes that leaders are born and not made. There are specific qualities
that make a great leader in every situation. Spencer (1820 – 1903) argues that
great men are influenced by their current surroundings. If they lived in a
different era, it could have been different. They would not have as much impact
they enjoyed in a different era. Although this makes sense, it is difficult to
ascertain if Spencer’s observation is accurate because a person lives in one
area. A person only lives in one era. It must be submitted though those great
men play an important role in moulding leadership and allowing others to look
up to them as role models.
theory – Robbins et
al. (2001) explains that they initiate structure and define leadership
according to goal attainment and are therefore task orientated. Production and
employee orientation is their focus area.
to (Precinct Hall, 2007), behavioural theories of leadership propose that
specific behaviours differentiate leaders from non-leaders. This means that if there was a specific
behaviour identified in leaders, then we could teach leadership. The behaviour
can also be altered to suit the requirements of a job in order for them to be
style has had modest success in identifying consistent relationships between the
leader’s behaviour and group performance (Robbins, 1997).
theory – Robbins et
al. (2001) explains that group performance/goal attainment is informed by match
between the leader’s style, and the extent to which the leader can control the
situation. This style also termed situational leadership, allows the situation
to determine how leadership should be defined.
A company should have both
leaders and managers. Whilst there are different leadership theories,
Management will comprise of Top Management, Technical Support, Middle
Management and Administrative Support and Technical Care
key differences between leadership and management are:
A Leader produces change and
movement, whereas a Manager is concerned about producing order and consistency
(Ryan, 2016). There is a vast difference between leadership and management,
in that the leader explains what needs to be done, when and how the task should
be performed. The manager provides employees with structure but also supports
the efforts. The Manager develops incentives for employees.
leader needs to deal with three important variables, the people being led, the
task being performed and the environment in which the work is taking place and
in the meantime motivates them to produce work of high quality. The manager on
the other hand concentrates on the extent to which the tasks that the employees
are engaged in is structured. It is
clearly specified and known what followers are supposed to do, how they are to
do it and the sequence in which it has to be done.
leader and the employees share in decisions about how best to complete a
high-quality job. The leader provides direction and the employees have some
input, but the leader makes the decision. The Manager plans and budgets
according to the company’s key strategic plans.
1.2 How these have been demonstrated
takes the task of training its workforce seriously. Not only does the company
train for itself, they also train for the transport industry at large. The
company is currently training Artisans for the industry to ensure that there is
a continuous supply of qualified artisans. Not only does PUTCO train artisans
as this is a scarce skill, there is also an on-going shortage of competent bus
drivers on the road. The company therefore offers short learning programmes and
Learnership initiatives to close the gap and reduce unemployment.
company also invest in the current workforce through providing bursaries for
studying in Higher Education and Training Institutes in order to get credible
qualifications. Employee’s studies forms part of their development plan. The
company has also started with development plans because most people in senior
positions are near retirement age. Skills transfer is therefore important for
the continuity of business. This is an
evidence of good leadership and management.
Personal Leadership style.
2.1.1 Transactional Leadership
(1978) defines transactional as “A leadership style whereby the objectives and
goals are predefined, and the leader uses reward and punishment authority and
responsibility to motivate followers.” According to Bass (1985), Transactional
leadership “refers to the exchange relationship between leader and follower to
meet their own self-interests.”
this style, expectations between leader and subordinate are clearly defined. It
is more a practical style of work where the emphasis is on the end product
through set procedures and set structures. The challenge with this style is
that it blocks creativity and therefore people who are creative might struggle
with this approach. People who prefer set out procedures will thrive in this environment.
(Spahr 2015) comments that “Transactional,
or managerial, leaders work best with employees who know their jobs and are
motivated by the reward-penalty system. The status quo of an organization is
maintained through transactional leadership.”
careful review of transactional and transformational leadership; my personal
style is more transactional. When I evaluate myself against what Bass (1985)
transact with subordinates by rewarding efforts contractually as far as
possible, motivating the team by telling them what to do to gain rewards. My
idea of reward is growth in the organization by putting in a good word when an
opportunity for promotion is available. I also believe that providing a healthy
and happy work environment is a form of reward. Bass (1985) uses a harsh work
for non-performance which is to punish undesired action. I instead prefer
providing constant feedback and monitoring to rectify the behavior. My opinion
is that punishment is less desirable if one is to build a strong team. This has,
however placed me in a vulnerable position as some people understand the
language of punishment.
Bass (1985) emphasized that
by providing contingent rewards, a transactional leader might inspire a
reasonable degree of involvement, loyalty, commitment and performance from
believe part of the transaction means being fair to employees by setting
realistic goals and ensuring that everyone understands why they do what they
do. I believe the nature of my work has moulded me in to this leadership style
because of set regulations like Skills Development Act, Public Finance
Management Act and company set policies and procedures. One has to comply with
those in order to be on the right side of the law. This style has worked for me
in most instances. It has also worked well for me because I am hired to ensure
that everyone is doing what they are supposed to do. I do have incidences though,
where the style has not worked. In our country, people are not afforded
opportunities to work in their preferred careers due to shortage of employment.
Therefore, it becomes difficult to lead a person who is more comfortable with
being a trainer for example instead of handling administrative duties or
someone who would rather use a different template (being creative) for
preparing reports instead of doing some work. Although I am more transactional,
I believe transformational style is more desirable, even though it depends on
the type of work one is doing. My personal observation is that I need to open
myself more to transformational leadership style instead of worrying that
people did not do something in a specific way. Transactional leadership style
has not worked for me in some instances because of some level of selfishness –
preference of routine. It has also not worked for me because at some stage
subordinates find work less entertaining.
2.1 Team Development
am a Team Leader of the Company’s skills development team which comprises of four
(4) members and I believe that we are a closely knit team. I believe team’s
level of expertise is their strength. We are able to communicate with each
other effectively and they are reliable. One area I am lacking on is celebrating
team’s successes. I do not tell them enough that I appreciate them. As already
listed above, I just tell them that in this platform I will provide them the
necessary skills to be able to work at a higher level.
team’s weakness is the fact that they can get too relaxed. I would prefer to
work with people who do not need to be micro managed. One has to constantly set
deadlines, arrange meetings to check work. If I do not do that, they easily
relax and get behind with the work.
team is operating at the level of performing.
team has developed from forming and storming over the period of two years, we
are now developing to the level of Performing.
I will not say the team is definitely at the level of performing, but we
are almost there. Adequate training of my team is important and training is
on-going to make the team effective. For the past years as a Team Leader, I
have seen the team generating positive synergy through coordinated effort.
members share ideas where it is within our control by providing guidance on
what might work best based on their practical work experience. This has been
advantageous because they work hard to prove why their theory works. The team
has therefore increased in efficiency.
of trust has been established in the team and we communicate openly so that we
can establish best practices in all we do. One of my main focus areas when
recruiting is looking for people who can think on their feet and show a certain
level of emotional intelligence. This has assisted me in the stage of forming.
do have a solid team because they are willing and do participate as required. Clear guidelines and expectations
assist to make team members effective.
to the level of norming has not been an entirely easy process. To my advantage
is the fact that I have worked in a leadership role for years and have
developed pertinent skills required to lead a team.
I started leading a team, it was not easy because I was used to doing my work
at the required level. I was hardly called to a poor performance meeting. I had
assumed that now that I have people reporting to me, by default they will do
what is required of them. I got a wakeup call when reports were due and work
was not at a required level. By nature I am more about work when it is time to
work, it was difficult to start giving feedback without hurting people’s
feelings. I had to develop emotional intelligence and am still working towards
that. I do lack empathy with uncompleted work. I sometimes also struggle to
adapt when circumstances demand. We are
at a level in the team where we understand each other and can separate work
from personal issues.
Manager played a role through leading by example on how to handle difficult
team members by being consistent in the face of resistance. Continuous feedback
has assisted me to help team members to be more effective.
2.1.2 What I have
must work hard in availing myself more to members of my team. Now that we are
at the stage of Norming, I have almost made myself invisible which is not a
good thing because we are not yet adequately performing. I just want to be
provided with work. Monitoring is becoming a challenge to me hence I mentioned
that emotional intelligence is of utmost importance to me. The team has
afforded me the opportunity to be self-aware of my strength and weaknesses by
how they interact with me when we have an open conversation.
have also learned the importance of integrity when leading a team, this assists
to establish a credible relationship between team members, myself and our
Development Action Plan
Part 1 – Personal Analysis
Areas for further
I have extensive administrative
skills gained over the years I have been employed. This has assisted me to be
productive in my area of work.
I am clear minded as I work with a
lot of detail.
I have set high personal standards
of performance and aim to work to the best of my ability.
I am able to guide the team as I
know in detail what needs to be done by me, my senior, and my subordinates.
I enjoy working with detail and
strive to provide work of highest quality.
I am able to separate work from
I tend to spend too much time
checking and re-checking my work and the work of others.
I get frustrated and upset if people
do not provide work of the highest quality especially after been trained.
I get detached from everything
around me and prefer to carry on working than working on relationships. I am
sometimes told that I am “cold”.
I should allow people time to
perform their duties and practice a little bit of patience.
I am performing most of the duties
previously allocated to the Skills Development Manager.
I believe attending ILDP with GIBS
will provide me with opportunities to further enhance my skills especially
people skills. Possibly allow me the opportunity to be appointed into a
I see my
desire to make sure that everything is running smoothly as a threat because
it can get overwhelming.
changes to legislation requires that I work to keep abreast with all
Part 2 – Setting Goals
What do I want to learn?
What do I have to do?
What support and resources will I
How will I measure success?
Target date for review?
Strategic Management and thinking.
Currently, I am operating as a Transactional Leader.
I want opportunities to be able to
work as a Transformational Leader.
1. Complete International Leadership
Development Programme with GIBS.
1. The OD Manager (my manager).
2.Access to resources (all internet
3. Time off to study.
4. Be provided with opportunities to
be given tasks to work at a strategic level. On-the-job Mentors.
1. Completing assignments.
2. Feedback when given
opportunities to work at that level.
2. February 2018
I only allow people to know very
little about me.
1. Be willing to open myself to
others as far as possible.
Self-evaluation and evaluation from
Understand the Operations Department
in the Transport Industry
Study for a qualification in
Time off for studying
Availability of on the job-mentors
Self=evaluation and feedback.
Train subordinates to develop a
Teach subordinates to make
presentations at Training Committee meetings
OD Manager and Team
After delegating, be responsible to
check if it is within parameters
Template retrieved from http://www.collegiovolta.org/images/example_pdp_2016.pdf.
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and performance beyond expectations.
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Spahr, P. 2016. What
is Transactional Leadership? How Structure Leads to
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Personal Development Plan. Retrieved from