Later of this novel technology assured to re-construct the

Later
the manufacturing revolution, the dawn of Nanotechnology is reflected as the
largest engineering modernization. The exponents of this novel technology
assured to re-construct the synthetic world. Particle by particle, igniting a
wave of unique uprising marketable goods from machineries to medications (John
Wiley et al., 2003). The beginning of
Nanotechnology is frequently accredited to a theory progressive by Richard P.
Feynman who is the father of nanotechnology. The term Nano signifies Dwarf
which is resultant from Greek noun. A nanometer is one billionth of meter or
length of 10 hydrogen atom positioned side by side or 1/80000 of wideness of
human hair. In drug the size of nanoparticle sorts from 5nm-250nm. They have detailed
properties and are formed by a number of organic or physical methods (Moghimi
SM et al., 2005).  

          Nano science and nanotechnology are
current innovatory growth in science and engineering that are budding at a very
fast leap. It is repeatedly mentioned as common purpose technology for the
reason that it has noteworthy influence on nearly all industries and all parts
of the world (Jeremy J Ramsden 2005).

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      Nanoparticles are produced worldwide due to
numerous exciting and exclusive properties, which assist their utilization in
entirely unconnected fields, such as, nanodiagnostics (Jamdagni et al., 2016; Syed 2014), nanomedicine
(Bobo et al., 2016; Chen et al., 2016) and antimicrobial (Ahmed et al., 2016; Sirelkhatim et al., 2015) on one pointer and
luminescence (Diallo et al., 2016a,b;
Sone et al., 2015; Thovhogi et al., 2016), photocatalytic potential
(Diallo et al., 2016a,b; Eslami et al., 2016) and photodiode response
(Thema et al., 2016) on the
additional.

        Due to their size and morphology,
nanomaterials have extensive variety of uses in various fields such as
electronics, optics, materials science and the biomedical sciences (Cle’ment
Sanchez et al., 2005; Ravindra p
singh et al., 2011). When linked to
macro-scale(bulk counterparts) Nanomaterials show distinctive and diverse
physical, chemical and biological properties (Shalini et al., 2012).

         Nanoparticles can be synthesized by various
physical and chemical methods, yet they are expensive, bulky and lethal to the
environment. The use of biological system as probable nanofactories has been broadly
discovered as they are cost-effective and recyclable. Plant extracts comprise
phytochemicals which support in the reduction of the metal ions (Fayaz et al., 2010). The usage of plant
extracts for nanoparticles production may be beneficial over other biological
procedures, because it drops the extravagant process of sustaining cell
cultures and can also be used for large scale NPs synthesis (Jeeva et al., 2014).

           In latest years, green synthesis of
nanoparticles has extended significant prominence and has become one of the utmost
ideal techniques. (Niranjan Bala et al., 2015).
An inventive branch of nanotechnology is green synthesis of nano particle which
depends on plant source and the organic compound in the crude leaf extract. A
lot of study has been supported and concerned with green synthesis of nano
particles (Noorjahane et al., 2015).

               Zinc oxide nanoparticles is a
fascinating semi-conductor. By consuming raw materials as chemical compounds
such as Zinc nitrate, Zinc sulfate and Zinc acetate the zinc oxide
nanoparticles synthesize can be done. But still these chemicals are imported in
to Indonesia with a very lavish rate. A possible source of raw materials
containing high zinc is electrified industrialized waste in the form of Zinc
dross. It encloses Zinc up to 90%-98% (Sitiagustina et al., 2014).

              Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle gains more
attention by the scholars of its extensive application in various fields such
as Pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, agro chemicals, ceramics, optical and
piezoelectric field. Zinc oxide is also known as zincite which is an inorganic
compound and in a crystalline nature. They are mostly used for the molecular
diagnostics, target drug delivery and evolving new therapeutic preparations. It
is also used to treat leukemia and carcinoma cancer cell (Bogutska et al., 2013). Owing to its unique
physical, chemical and biological properties Zinc oxide is deliberated as
multi-task metal oxide which can be used as nanoscale. It has a wide-ranging
uses in the field of thermodynamic, electrodynamic, electromagnetic, mechanical
and gas sensing (Anandraj and Jayalakshmy 2015).

         Zinc oxide (ZnO) has gain
extraordinary attention as anti-bacterial agent among these metal oxides. For
example, ZnO prevents the linkage and internalization of enterotoxigenic E.coli into enterocytes (Roselli et al., 2003). In count, ZnO NPs reveal antibacterial activity as well
as can decrease the connection and sustainability of microbes on biomedical
surfaces.

(Brayneret et al.,2006,Yamamoto,2001).

 

            Luffa acutangula L. belongs to the
family Cucurbitaceae and it is a common vegetable in routine Indian food and
usually developing somatic creeper. It has altered dialect languages like
English (Ridge gourd), Hindi(Jhimani), Sanskrit (Gantali), Tamil (Peerku), Urdu
(Turai), Malayalam (Athanga), Kannada (Kahire) (Jyothi V Ambati et al.,2010).
The complete plant of  Luffa
acutangula is pharmaceutically significant and is used broadly in
Indian traditional classification of medicines. Ridge gourd rises Vata (manages all movement in the mind and body) and
kapha (manages all structure and lubrication in
the mind and body) and also it chills down and
soothes pitta (manages all heat, metabolism and
transformation in the mind and body) (Anitha J,
Miruthula S 2014). 

     

            Ridge gourd
has diuretic properties also used as a cough medicine, laxative and cleansing
agent, Hypoglycemic mediator, unpleasant energizer used in the broadening of
spleen. The roots are supportive in the elimination of kidney stones and in the
swelling of lymph glands. The leaves are helpful in the management of dysentry.
It is further used as dressing in the diseases such as swelling of spleen,
ringworms, piles and in leprosy. From the seeds the oil is taken out and useful
in skin diseases. Ridge gourd is also an active home remedy for inhibition of
early greying of hair (Pullaiah T, 2006).

       

           
Phytochemical investigation of fruit extracts of Luffa acutangula has shown the occurrence of sterols, Glycosides,
saponins, carbohdrates, flavonoids and triterpenes (Abid M et al., 2014). Seeds exhibited the existence of saturated and
unsaturated fatty acid, palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic acid. However the
fruits contain Cucurbitacin B and oleanalic acid (Rastogi R P et al., 2001).

    

            Plant
encloses a vicious substance called luffin. Seeds hold 20% of a saponin
glycoside, enzyme and a fixed oil (Chopra et
al., 1992). Flowers and fruits contain free amino acids, arginine, glycine,
threonine, lysine, alanine, asparagine, aspartic and glutamic acid and leucine.
Ripe seed also contain bitter glycosidic principles, Cucurbitacins B. D, G and
H (luffins) and oleanolic acid and roots cover Cucurbitacins B and traces of C
(Ghani, 2003)         

          In this study,
we report
the first time a novel, rapid cost effective and environmentally biosynthesis
of Zinc oxide nano particle using Luffa
acutangula L. flesh extract. The
arrangement of the synthesized product was investigated by the standard
characterization techniques. The scope of this current project work focused on
the following steps:

1.     
Preparation of
the ZnO nanoparticle by green synthesis method. zinc nitrate is the precursor
material here.

2.     
Study the
optical properties of ZnO nanoparticle by UV-VIS Spectroscopy.

3.     
Identify the
various characteristic functional groups in molecule of synthesized
nanomaterials by using FTIR analysis.

4.     
Determination
of ZnO nanoparticle size by X-ray diffraction studies.

5.     
Characterize
the surface morphology of the ZnO nanoparticle by SEM analysis.

6.     
To determine
the antibacterial activity of synthesized ZnO nanoparticle.