In for language teaching and became the most popular.

In the chapter
named ‘A “METHODICAL” HISTORY OF LANGUAGE TEACHING’ author states about the
several methods which are applied on language teaching classes, their features,
advantages, and also provide us the idea to differentiate which method is the
preferable one to apply in language teaching class. This chapter basically
focuses on methods of language teaching and it “described as an overall plan
for systematic presentation of language based upon a selected approach” (Brown
14). Some of the important methods such as GTM, The Direct Method, The
Audiolingual Method (ALM), Suggestopedia, The Silent Way, TPR are going to be
focused in this paper.

By the sixteenth
century, English started to displace a dominant language of western world which
was Latin. Gradually, this modern language began to enter in the academic
sectors and started to taught by the same methods as Latin language was taught.
As Latin was the most dominant and classical language, it was taught by the
Classical Method. “In the nineteenth century the Classical Method came to be
known as the Grammar Translation Method” and “focus on grammatical rules,
memorization of vocabulary and of various declensions and conjugations,
translation of texts, doing written exercises” (18). Throughout the 19th
century, this method was the first which was widely used for language teaching
and became the most popular. It is a deductive way of teaching language which
focuses on the accuracy more than pronunciation. Moreover, it is an effective way
of teaching language for learners as it “translates from the second to the
native language” (18). This method was intensively criticized as it can not
fulfill the demands of language learning and the direct method appears as a result
of the reaction against the GTM. “The Direct Method enjoyed considerable
popularity at the beginning of the twentieth century, and also mentions… that
second language learning should be more like first language learning – lots of
oral interaction, spontaneous use of language, no translation between the first
and second languages, and little or no analysis of grammatical rules” (21). In
private language schools, this method was accepted because, teachers can
directly interact with the students through this method and each student gets
individual attention, also the learners get motivation to do oral communication
with right pronunciation and with fluency as like native speakers. Again, “the
Army method came to known in the 1950s as the Audiolingual method” (23) where
teachers taught students trough inductive way using repetitive drills and has a
great impact over pronunciation and utterances. Another inductive methods of teaching
language, Suggestopedia and the Silent Way believes that when the students will
put into a relaxed mood then learning will be more effective, but both of them
were criticized or it had some some disadvantages as the methods are time
consuming and the learners may lose interest. On the other hand, Total Physical
Response (TPR) “classrooms students did a great deal of listening and acting”,
feel comfortable enough to ask questions and is “especially effective in the
beginning levels of language proficiency” (30).   

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However, this
paper mentions inclusive information about the more effective method of language
teaching, also shows that why teachers preferred these methods. These methods
are necessary for the teachers of language teaching as they are the key factors
to build up their base knowledge of teaching.