he Experimentation of pH Values on the Temperature at Which Liver Enzymes Denature The original idea for this project came from a lab on four different types of liver a boiled, raw, acidic, and basic liver (Investigation: Enzymes). This lab created a basic understanding on what denaturing is, both pH and temperature can denature a catalyst. What happens if the pH balance in your body is off? What happened in your body if you have a very high fever? How long does it take to denature a catalyst? Can pH change and temperature change at the same time increase the rate of denaturing? These opened ended questions helped me shape my investigation. Can changing the optimal pH of a catalytic protein (an enzyme)affect the temperature it denatures at?Enzymes are biological catalysts. The activity of an enzyme is affected by its environmental conditions (Royal Science of Chemistry). Organisms have to adjust to the conditions of their enzymes to produce an optimum rate of reaction. In order for a chemical reaction to occur molecules or atoms in a reaction need to collide with each other. The molecules must have sufficient energy to initiate the reaction, and the orientation of the molecules during the collision must also be considered (Royal Science of Chemistry). Enzymes then will speed up chemical reactions by providing an alternate reaction pathway of lower activation energy (lowering the amount of energy needed to finish the chemical reaction)(Royal Science of Chemistry).Enzymes also can change shape when substrates(The reacting molecule that binds to the enzyme)(Royal Science of Chemistry) bind. A substrate binds on an location of the enzyme’s surface known as the active site. The active site is also where the chemical reaction catalyzed by the enzyme occurs(Royal Science of Chemistry). Each enzyme has different optimum pH values and optimum temperature values. Different environmental factors can be beneficial to enzymes. Thes environmental factors can increase the rate of reaction, however, when enzymes exceed the optimal pH or temperature values it can cause the enzymes to denature. For example adding more heat or changing pH to the optimal can cause more random collisions between molecules per unit time, increasing the rate of reaction. Extreme temperatures and pH can cause the enzyme to denature and no longer function (Adam-Day). For example having a disease such as acidosis and alkalosis (AACC), enzymes can adapt to function well in extreme conditions to continue to produce an optimal rate of reaction(Adam-Day). The enzymes in liver helps break down potentially dangerous substances that people consume (Scientific American). The enzyme in the liver helps lower the activation energy in a chemical reaction, to increase the rate of the reaction. When hydrogen peroxide is added to a liver, a chemical reaction occurs. Hydrogen is broken down into water and oxygen. The breaking down of hydrogen peroxide is called a decomposition reaction. A decomposition reaction is when one substance is broken down/ broke apart into two substances. This decomposition reaction is shown below.With the addition to a liver enzyme it makes the rate of this decomposition reaction to happen faster. Some of the enzyme most commonly found in liver are, Alanine transaminase (ALT). Aspartate transaminase (AST), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT)(MayoClinic). These liver enzymes will help increase the rate at which hydrogen peroxide decomposes, in this experiment. As temperature rises reacting molecules tend to have more kinetic energy(Adam-Day). Kinetic energy is the energy of an object possesses due to its mass and motion(Adam-Day). More kinetic energy causes there to be more movement (random collisions) and increases the chances of a effective collision. For every enzyme there is a specific temperature at which the enzyme’s catalytic activity is at its greatest, this is known as the optimal temperature. The optimal temperature of a human body is around 37.5C for the enzymes in human cells. However increasing the temperature past optimal can put strain on hydrogen and covalent bonds, a severe amount of strain will weaken and eventually break the bond. In a human body, if the temperature exceeds 39.4C, it can be very critical(Adam-Day). This temperature is too high for enzymes to properly function and can cause them to denature(Adam-Day). As the bonds break within the enzyme it will change the shape of the active site. The change in shape means active site will then be less complementary to the shape of the substrate, this means that the catalyst is less likely to catalyse the reaction, denaturing the enzyme, and will no longer function.Furthermore, pH measures the acidity and basicity of a solution; it is a measure of the hydrogen and hydroxide ion concentration. Enzymes work there best within a small pH range. There is a pH at which its activity is its greatest, which is also known as the optimal pH. pH changes can make and break intra- and intermolecular bonds changing the shape of the enzyme(Adam-Day), making the enzyme nonfunctional. However small changes in pH above or below optimum do not cause a permanent change to an enzyme since the bonds can be reformed. Intra- and intermolecular bonds are bonds which hold atoms together in a molecule such the covalent bonds in CO.Different enzymes have different optimum pH values. Bonds within the enzyme are influenced by hydrogen and hydroxide ions because the shape of their active site is the most complementary to the shape of their substrate. The change in pH above or below optimal pH can cause a rapid decrease in the rate of reaction since more enzyme molecules will have active sites whose shapes are not complementary to the shapes of their substrates.Disorders such as acidosis and alkalosis are commonly found among people who suffer from lung diseases or conditions that affect normal breathing(AACC), it can cause people to have unbalanced pH. Having abnormal pH can be harmful to your body, pH must stay within a narrow range of 7.35-7.45 to ensure the proper functioning of metabolic processes. Acidosis refers to an excess of acid in the blood that can cause the pH to fall below 7.35(AACC). Alkalosis refers to an excess of base in the blood that causes the pH to rise above 7.45(AACC). If someone with one of these disorders were to get a fever it could be fatal. The mix of a high/low pH and a fever can cause the enzymes in their blood to denature faster than normal.