Color relative position of red and green lights.Aim:The aim

Color is one of the
most essential components of the information that we infer with our eyes. We
fail to appreciate the importance of color as we frequently see it everywhere.
It is a non-linguistic code that informs us about the world and the things around
us. From detecting color, for instance, we can find the bee sting on a child’s
hand before the swelling starts as we can spot the red color on the skin. We
know when the fruit is yellow that it is ripe and not raw as a raw banana is
green. Using color we can even know whether we will need to stop at the distant
traffic light, even at night, when we cannot see the relative position of red
and green lights.Aim:The aim of the
experiment is to test the accuracy of color vision in males and females of
different age groups. This will be done using an online color test known as the
Hue test. Accuracy of color vision is believed to dwindle with age. The
experiment aims to check if the hypothesis is true or not.Hue
test:he Farnsworth-Munsell
100 hue test is one of the most famous color vision tests available. It belongs
to the group of hue discrimination, also called arrangement tests. Another
famous test in this group is the Farnsworth D15 arrangement test. The aim of the test is
to order the shown color plates in the correct order—any misplacement can point
to some sort of color vision deficiency.The Hue test can be
accessed through http://www.xrite.com/hue-testResearch
question:To investigate the
extent to which the accuracy of color vision differs between male and female of
different age groups.Prediction:The accuracy of color
vision will be better for women compared to men. It is noted generally that
women have a better overall accuracy of color vision and identification
compared to men. This could primarily be attributed to evolution. However there
could be several other factors. This is also attributed to factors besides age
and gender, such as genetics and much more.Method:The method used will be
an online color test called the hue test to record the accuracy of color vision
in participants·        
The participants will take an online
test to estimate their accuracy of color vision·        
There are four bands of color strips·        
The first and last color chips are fixed
in each of the strip·        
The participants must drag and drop the
colours in each row to arrange them by hue colorThe experiment involved
60 participants. 30 of them were male and 30 were female. Each age group
consisted of ten male and female participants. The results of each of them are
listed in a table below.Data Table:MALES: 

AGE

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V1

V2

V3

V4

V5

V6

V7

V8
 
 
 

V9

V10

10-20

16

60

0

68

110

86

0

32
 

98

100

20-40

98

110

100

87

32

28

24

100
 

24

60

ABOVE 40

110

100

68

86

100

74

37

84
 

91

81

FEMALE:

        AGE

 
 
V1

 
 
V2

 
 
V3

 
 
 V4

 
 
V5

 
 
V6

 
 
V7

 
 
V8
 
 
 

 
 
V9

 
 
V10

10-20

86

0

2

2

10

28

0

5
 

24

10

20-40

10

25

40

36

72

28

26

10
 

32

28

ABOVE 40

50

76

32

34

26

86

28

100
 

78

34

 The experiment’s
results proved the hypothesis that women had better accuracy of color vision
over all age groups of men. Our method of data
collection for this experiment is to oblige the participants to take the online
test and once they have the test, they are expected to fill in their age and
gender on the website. This can be screenshot by us with permission from the
participants to use their results for the experiment. The can then be analysed
by comparing different age groups of male and female to procure the final
outcome that supported the hypothesis in this experiment.Assumptions:·        
The participants do not have any
disabilities in terms of eye sight or color identification including color
blindness or complete blindnessObservations:For the age group
10-20, ten participants of male and females have taken the hue test. Through
the results we could see that the females have relatively better score (with 0
as the perfect score) there are two participants with the perfect score of 0, 4
participants with a score below 10 and 2 participants below the score of 50. It
is noticed that there is only 1 participant with a score above 50. However this
is not the case with the boys. We could conclude through the results that young
girls between the age group of 10-20 have better color vision than that of the
boys of the same age group.Other
factors that affected the results:There are many factors
other than just one’s age and gender that will have an outcome on the precision
of the color vision. Some of these include lighting, effects of background,
retinal exhaustion and deprived color memory. Light usually plays a vital role
in one’s color vision as it’s the color of the light that decides the color
that one’s brain will interpret. The ability of a person to interpret the color
is influenced by colors in the surrounding. This is known as simultaneous
contrast. Retinal tiredness can also have an effect on the color one’s brain
perceives. It is because when our retinal part of the brain is tired, it could
perceive wrong information about the color and send it to the brain.  Though these are
important factors they are however minor. The major factor that determines
color vision is genetics. Any mutations in the genes that affect eye color such
as OPNILW and OPNIMW genes can affect eye color adversely. The proteins
produced by these genes play an important role in one’s color vision. These are
usually found in the light sensitive part of the eye, retina. The rods and
cones in the eye transmit information from eye to the brain. The rods provide
vision during dim light and the cones provide vision in the bright light. There
are 3 types of cones that are specific to particular wavelengths. The brain
interprets all 3 responses and produces normal color vision.The three genes provide
instructions for making opsin pigment in the cones. The opsin sensitive to the
light in yellow part of spectrum is made by gene OPN1LW. They are known as L
cones. The OPN1MW gene makes opsin sensitive to color in the middle spectrums
(m cones). The opsin made by the OPN1SW gene is sensitive to the short spectrum
colors. (s cones). Genetic defects in red-green color vision can be caused by
changes in the gene of OPN1LW or OPN1MW. These are the changes that will cause
production of opsin pigments that are abnormal. The blue vision defect from
mutations in a gene called the OPN1SW gene. This can lead to premature S cones
and finds it hard to distinguish blue from dark colors.MEAN
SCORES FOR THE HUE TEST

AGE

BOYS

GIRLS

10-20

63

18.5

20-40

67

32.1

ABOVE
40

83.1

54.4

 CONCLUSION:Females
showed less saturation compared to males in the green yellow region of colour
space. This advantage of female over male could be perceived to the because of
the M Cone polymorphism. At a physiological level, the differences in colour
vision may arise as a result of how genes have been inherited and colour
deficiencies are inherited in humans. These defects are sex linked.  They are due to mutations in either long wavelength
or medium wavelength coding genes that are located on the X chromosome.  If a female inherits one normal chromosome
and one abnormal x chromosome, she would become the carrier of the colour
vision difficulty. However this is not the case with men as if they inherit the
abnormality on the X chromosome, they cannot be carrier and would inherit the
abnormality. However the normal genes are expressed in some cells while the
abnormal genes are found in some cells. Hence women who are a carrier will have
the potential to possess four types of cones. Sex differences in colour vision
may also be attributed caused by L and M cone polymorphism. It is showed that
the polymorphism of the L cones affect the red green ratio. In males who have
one X chromosome only, half have alanine L cone and other half have the serine
kind of pigment in the L cones. In female populations, this is not the case as
they have two X chromosome. Around 50% of
females possess both L-cone types in their retina while the other 50%, almost
equally divided, have only one or the other. Hence they are perceived to have
better color vision1              Appendices:FEMALE
10-20

1 Ian J. Murray, et al. “Sex-related
differences in peripheral human color vision: A color matching study.”
jov.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2191999.