BASIC ELEMENTS OF MUSIC
Music is an art of combining certain
sounds for reproduction by the human voice or a musical instrument, in
rhythmic, melodic and harmonic form.
The basic elements of a musical
composition include Melody, Rhythm, Harmony, Timbre, Texture and the
Musical Form. Other factors which may contribute to the overall effect
include the Tempo, Dynamics and Expression.
Melody is basically a succession of
sounds of varying pitches presented one after another. The sounds are organized
in such a way as to achieve a distinctive shape. Melody is the most important
element or ingredient in a piece of music.
Rhythm is the aspect of
music in which the composer groups together musical sounds in relation to time,
mainly with regard to duration and accents of regular beats or pulses.
Harmony is the sounding
together of musical sounds (pitches) to produce chords (concords) with pleasant
or (discords) unpleasant effect.
Timbre is the characteristic tone or sound
quality or the tone-colour of an instrument or a voice. It enables the ear to
distinguish between the sounds. The characteristic timbre of an instrument is
the result of several factors- the material from which it is made- the method
by which it produces the sound and the way on which these sounds are made to
resonate. The most important factor is the Harmonics or Overtones- their
relative strengths and the way they mix together- which mainly determine the
distinctive timbre of an instrument and the brilliance of its sound.
Texture is the way the sounds are woven
together in a piece of music, like the way threads are woven in a piece of
Musical form is the basic plan or structure of a musical
composition- the way the music is put together and built up to form a complete
and satisfactory whole. There are
various types of musical form, depending upon a balance of two essential
ingredients – repetition and contrast.
Tempo is the rate of speed of
Dynamics (marks) indicate the
varying degrees of loudness or softness of music.
Expression (marks) are the
instructions added to the music to indicate the manner of performance.
together with Melody and Harmony, Rhythm is one of the three most important
elements of music. In other words Music is an art of tone combination in time,
which expresses ideas and emotions in significant forms through the elements of
Melody, Harmony and Rhythm.
the concept of the Hindustani Music System
‘???? ?????? ?
?????? ????? ????? ???????’
art of music comprises singing (Vocal Music), playing a musical instrument (Instrumental
Music) and the expressions through the physical movements (Dance). The word Sangeet
represents the three arts, since they are not only related to each
other, but they are supplementary arts and can produce, in combination, some
very interesting and magical effect.
We can translate the above Sanskrit phrase in our
way i.e. ???? is a
Melody, ?????? for
Harmony and ?????? means Rhythm.