There to Housing Act of 2012 inclusion criteria (USA)

There are varies definition of homelessness in different
countries. For example, Homeless
Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition to Housing Act of 2012 inclusion
criteria (USA) defined homelessness as individuals who do have a fixed residence and
for those who live in a place that is not suitable for habitation of human (Geertsema, Edgar, O’Sullivan and Pleace, 2010). While European Typology of Homelessness and Housing Exclusion (ETHOS) defines a person as homeless if they are roofless or houseless (Federation of National Organisations Working
with the Homeless, 2012). However, in Australia, definition of homelessness is categories into three types, the first type is
individuals without regular
accommodation, the second type is individuals with living in shelters or temporarily with family or friends and the three type is with living in substandard housing such as boarding homes (Homelessness Taskforce Department of Families, Housing, Community
Services and Indigenous Affairs, Commonwealth of Australia, 2014). The United Kingdom is the
only country with a statutory response to homelessness who do not have place available for occupation, should be provided them place (Minnery and Greenhalgh, 2007). So the
reasons for them to be homeless is varies. Basically, the factors that lead to homelessness can
be divided into two, which are structural and individual factors. Structural factor
is a factor resulting from social, political or especially economic structure that
could directly causes a person at high risks of homelessness. Factors
such as shortage of economical rented housing, poverty of country and natural
disaster are grouped into structural factors. On the other hand, family disorganisation, jobless,
poor education, poor physical health, mental illness and addictions are grouped
into individual factors, which are personal characteristics that could leads
homelessness (Johnson, Scutella, Tseng, Wood, 2015). Proponents of structural
factors mostly support that individual factors of homelessness are more common
compared to structural factors (Blau, 1992; Barak, 1992; Hoch & Slayton,
1989; Wright, 1989, as cited in Thomas Main, 1998). Researchers
are arguing among themselves about what is the main reason for homelessness.
Some of them say that structural factors are the main reasons, some of them say
individual factors are the main reasons. This confusion is because of the
different main causes of homelessness.

One of the structural factors that lead to
homelessness is lack of affordable housing in the market (Cohen, 1999). In United States, some people will choose to live with their relatives or friends while others, especially those with weaker or less
resourceful social networks, will not find a home at all without
economical housing ( Krivo, 1989?Rossi, 1989?as
cited in Elliott and 
Krivo? 2012;  Joint Center for Housing Studies, 1993 as cited
in Shinn, 2012). In addition, reducing federal support for public housing construction, lack of units in private
market, growing waiting lists for public housing,
increasing home ownership costs, more frequent displacement and abandonment of
residential buildings have all operated to reduce the supply of affordable housing that cause the
increase in homelessness (Hartman,
1986; Hope and Young, 1986; Hopper and Hamberg, 1986; Huttman, 1988; Rossi and
Wright, 1987; Wright and Lam, 1987 ,as cited in Elliott and Krivo, 2012; Dolbeare, 1991 as cited in Shinn, 2012). Eventually people are unable to find alternative living arrangements, short of emergency shelters and finally sleep on
the street (Elliott and Krivo, 2012; Shinn and Gillespie, 1994). In Yemen, the housing shortage is 787,069 units
including the replacement of some of unsuitable units. There is no housing supply by the government
until now. Most people in Yemen do not have the ability to afford own
houses and become homeless people (Aldhabebi, 2007; Alaghbari, 2008 as cited in Alaghbari, Salim, Ali and Dola, 2009). In Australia, the lack of affordable and economical housing is the result of government policy which has cut the
availability of public housing and it will cause people in danger of being in
state of homelessnesss especially for older people (Fopp, 2002; Kavanagh 1997; Lipmann 1999, as cited in Morris, Judd and Kavanagh, 2005). The social housing stock dropped ‘from 6.1
percent of all housing in 1996 to 5.1 percent in 2003’ and it is estimated the government funding for the Commonwealth State Housing Agreement
(CSHA) fell by 54 percent between 1994 and 2004 (McClure, 2004; Powall and Withers, 2004, as cited in Morris,
Judd and Kavanagh, 2005). In UK, there is a decrease in low-cost housing stock
caused by conversions of rentals to private ownership. And the market could not provide sufficient suitable
accommodation at a reasonable price (Adams, 1986; Hopper, 1988; Greve, 1991, as cited in
Bhugra, 1996; Pleace,
1998). For example, London has 742000 council units and a waiting list of 306000 applicants
(Department of Environment, 1993; Greve, 1991, as cited in Bhugra, 1996). The
second structural factor of homelessness is economic changes (Elliott and Krivo, 2012). In France, industrial restructuring lead to income loss for blue-collar workers or loss of access to employment and housing (Firdion and Marpsat, 2007, as cited in O’Sullivan, Geertsema, Quilgars and Pleace, 2010). In
New York, there is a link between recent recessions in economy and increases in homelessness (O’Flaherty and Wu, 2006; Cragg and O’Flaherty, 1999, as cited in O’Sullivan, Geertsema, Quilgars and Pleace, 2010). In
US, the economy change from manufacturing to service industries has
increased the proportion of unstable, low paying jobs which do not provide enough income to support monthly
housing costs (Elliott and Krivo? 2012). In Canada, global and domestic changes in the economy such as trade liberalization and deindustrialization had a direct influence on the growth of poverty and lead to growing
numbers of people winding up on the streets (Gaetz, 2010).

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On the other hand, the first individual factor of
increasing of homeless people especially children and women who sleeping on the
streets as a result of domestic violence (Wee, Omar, 2015; Yani et al., 2016;
Cohen, 1999). Majority homeless women complain that they are forced to leave
homes because of they are unable to bear the violence anymore (Adib, Hussin,
Ahmad, 2016). The victims of domestic violence always forced to find other
shelters for purpose of protection (Roschelle, 2008). The following statistics
show that the high percentage of domestic violence happened in different
countries that contribute to homelessness. There are 38% of women in Korea (Kim
& Cho, 1992) and 41% of women in Uttar Pradesh and Tamil (Jejeebhoy &
Cook, 1997) are beaten by their husbands. There are 52% of the women in
Nicaragua are being abused by their partners (Ellsberg et al., 1999). Most of the
victims were ravaged physically and psychologically of domestic violence. The
physically ravage such as pain, sexual abuse and bones broken will directly
cause psychologically ravage just like stress, social isolation, anxiety and
also depression. When these kind of cases happened, some of the victims choose
to flee from their homes due to safety factor. They felt that their homes are
no longer safe to stay and even willing to sleep on the streets. National
Incidence Studies found that 67% rise of child abuse from year 1986 to 1993 in
United State (Putnam, 2003). When children are abused either physical, sexual
or psychological abuse by parent, the children will live in fear, depression
and having problem in academic and interpersonal relationship. After a long duration,
those effects will directly destroy their childhood. Under this condition,
mothers are forced to flee from homes together with their children just to save
their children since they are unable to solve the problems. In short, the
significant contributor of women and children to become homeless is because of
they could not bear the violence anymore. The next individual factor that leads
to homelessness is they loss of job (Yani, 2016; Johnson, 2015; MacKenzie &
Chris, 2008; Hertzberg, 1992; Tessler et al., 2001). The following statistics
show that the high percentage of unemployment rate in different countries that
contribute to homelessness. There are 89% of homeless people had ever jobless
and it will cause a risk ratio of 5.45 to become homeless in America (Johnson
et al., 1997). In Malaysia, the unemployment rates soared from 5.5% to 8.6%
from year 1983 to 1988 (Noor, Nor, Ghani, 2007). The Department of Statistics
Malaysia (2011) found that the unemployment graduates rate in Malaysia had rose
from 3.2 % in 2007 to 3.7% in 2009 (Hanapi & Nordin, 2013). In India, the
number of unemployed increased from 2.33 to 6.48 millions from year 1955 to
1961 (Tilak, 1965). In South Africa, urban unemployment rate is about 29.3% at
year 1997 (Kingdom & Knight, 2004). When there are high unemployment rate
in the country, many people who loss of a job will have no income to pay the
rent and face the forced eviction. One of the factors that lead to high
unemployment rate is the quality of the employees. Some of the employers will
criticise on the employees who are lack of qualifications or some skills, like
communication skills, leadership and also language. The employees who are lack
of employability skills will directly affect the employment. As we know, the
unemployment rate of graduates in Malaysia is high, how about the people who
are with health problems and disabilities, they are also having the problems of
finding a job. This condition results that homelessness is getting serious with
people who are having health problems and also disabilities. Besides, teenagers
nowadays request for high employee welfare when finding a job. For instances,
high salary, comfortable working environment, good quality work, short working
time and so on, so that is why the employers are willing to hire the foreign
workers with low salary compared to local workers. Thus, results in decreasing
of job opportunity and increasing of unemployment rate. When jobless people
finding for a shelter, they are having difficulties to pay the rent and also
getting trust by the house owner. Therefore, they have no choice and forced to
sleep on the streets.

Based on what we found on this topic, it seems that
more researchers agree that individual factors are the main reason of
homelessness. However, the main factor of homelessness varies in different
countries since different countries having different conditions and background.
Both structural and individual can said to be relative to each other, because
both factors can be the contributors for homelessness or one of them or neither
based on the conditions of that country. For example in a developed country,
although a person who are having a job and able to buy a house, the person
chooses to flee from house just because of enjoying to be homeless, it is
neither structural nor individual factor that contribute to this situation. In
a developing country, a jobless person who are unable to pay for high rent, it
is also neither structural nor individual factor that contribute to this
situation. In most of the developed countries like United States and Korea, the
factor that contributes to homelessness is domestic violence, while in Canada,
the factor is the change of economy. In Japan, a sharply increase of homeless
people happened just after the natural disaster such as earthquake, in which
earthquake destroy most of the houses in the country. There is an obviously gap
between developed and developing countries in which most of the developing or
under developed country like India and South Africa, the factor that leads to
homelessness is high unemployment rate causes them become jobless. This is why
the researchers argued among themselves about whether structural or individual
factor more contributes to homelessness since the researchers having different
perspectives on the main factors based on different countries.

In conclusion, both structural and individual factors
can be the main factor that contribute to homelessness because the factors that
lead to homelessness varies due to different countries and different
background.