The over the quantum channel. Consequently, the probability for

The principle of quantum computing and communications has been
initiated in 1970 when Stephan Wiesner has proposed a discussion paper about
the basis of several improvements of quantum computing and cryptography area.
Stephan Wiesner introduced the basic idea of no-cloning theory which declares
that the quantum status can’t be copied 1. Unlike the classical computer, the
quantum computer can improve the massive processing power and accomplish many
tasks by utilizing all potential transformations concurrently. Furthermore, the
architecture of quantum computers is contradictory from the classical one which
is controlled by number of transistors. The data can be represented as bits (0
or 1) in the classical environment. On the other hand, the quantum environment represented
the data represented as quantum bits and in a superposition state. The
superposition state denotes that the quantum state can be 0, 1 or in both
states simultaneously. Quantum computers share theoretical relationships with
nondeterministic and probabilistic computers 2, 3, 4. Ever since the seminal
work of Bennett and Brassard 1, the ?eld of quantum cryptography has evolved
rapidly. Quantum cryptography verifies its unconditional security 2–5 by the
no-cloning theorem 6. A number of approaches and models have used quantum
Cryptography to secure communication processes between two and various participants
7–13.

The security and confidentiality of the communication process achieved
an immense benefit by utilizing the properties of quantum mechanics compared to
the perspective classical one.  The most
important principle of quantum computing is entanglement. Entanglement is one
of the uniqueness physical characteristic that describes the way of how the
particles can be correlated to each other regardless of the distance. The
verification of user identity through entanglement has been proposed by many research
groups. Regrettably, some of the proposed protocols have been failed form the
security viewpoint as the attacker can attain some of the transmitted sequence
of the photons and transmit the remained to the destination over the quantum
channel.  Consequently, the probability
for information disturbance is increase as the attacker can retrieve a portion of
the transmitted trustworthy message. In the viewpoint of the limitations of the
current protocols, a new protocol for authentication of the user identity by utilizing
the property of entanglement especially Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger (GHZ) states,
which cause the proposed protocol is more efficient and secure compared to some
of the proposed protocols is introduced in 18.

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