The In present days marketing activities, there is hardly

The social environment of food which is largely
influenced by advertisement and branding, among others, is sharpening
food choices, and by extension diet quality. Advertising is one of the
promotional strategy that serves as a major tool in creating product awareness
in the mind of a potential user to take eventual purchase decision about the
products or services. (Kenneth and Donald, 2010; Uwem et al., 2015). Advertisement
often contains persuasive messages usually conveyed in mass media, which
include, among others, radio, magazine, newspapers, the internet, billboards
and, especially, the television, incorporating the elements of sound, picture
and motion, use of copycat behaviour, and role models. Direct messages through
email addresses and text messages to phones are also new ways product
advertisement. In present days marketing activities, there is hardly any
business which does not advertise (Asemah et al., 2013). The aim of
advertisement is to steal at least a fraction of a person’s time in order to
inform him or her of the amazing and different attributes of the products at
hand (Mwendwa and Mberia, 2014). 
Celebrity endorsement if used effectively makes the brand stand out,
enhances brand recall and facilitates instant awareness. Celebrities like film
stars and cricketers have not only been successful in gathering huge public
attention, but also in increasing sales volume (Zippora and Mberia, 2014). The
huge investments of companies in advertising are not without motives, as
companies try to outsmart each other with their advertisements in order to
obtain a domineering share and win customers’ favour (Apejoye, 2013). In recent
years most adverts on television has a celebrity that projects the products or
services by way of using the product and with this, has influence on the buyers
and customers of these products and services. 
Some ex-super eagle star players featured in multi-category endorsements
of foods such as peak milk, and pepsi soft drink in Nigeria.  Maggi Cubes and Lipton tea, among others, also
found their way through to every nooks and crannies of the countries by
building strong loyalty through effective marketing strategies. Given that
advertising is a veritable making strategies use to create awareness and gain favourable responses about products and
services, here influence on foods choices and diet qualities cannot be
overemphasized.   

 

 

Another important factors that affects
food environment and dietary quality relates to legislation and enforcement
food laws. Inadequate or poorly enforced regulatory standards (WHO, 2015) has
been noted as one of the limiting factors to good quality foods; and that rehabilitation of the food systems,
inclusive of the agricultural  (and
food)  sectors through sound government
policies is necessary. Concerns for food safety and compliance to
standard has motivated many governments of the world, and other interest groups
to join force together, playing regulatory and surveillance roles to ensure
that  food available for consumption is
safe and healthy. With this in view, the Food and Agriculture Organization
(FAO), and the United Nations (UN) have been making effort to ensure that
member countries apply food standard in order to protect consumers. In Nigeria,
regulation of food safety is carried out by the Federal Ministries of Health
and Agriculture, Standards Organization of Nigeria (SON), and the National
Agency for Food and Drugs Administration and Control (NAFDAC). Like several
other developing countries, Nigeria is confronted with the problem of food
borne diseases with their attendant social, economic and health costs (Omotayo
and Denloye, 2009). There is a national policy on food hygiene and safety
launched in Nigeria in 2000 to promote health through control of food-borne
diseases, reduction and final elimination of the risk of diseases related to
poor food hygiene at affordable price. The NAFDAC has developed several
regulations in line with Nigerian Industrial Standards, and Codex Alimentarius
Commission’s Standards, one of which is mandatory fortification of some food
items such as table salt, sugar, flour, vegetable oil to the prescribed levels
before accepting them into the country. 
Examples of such regulations include iodization of salts, and the fortification
of foods with Vitamin A. Some other regulations relating to foods include
pre-packaged food (Labelling), Regulations 2005, and Pesticide Registration
Regulations 2005. Food like bromated bread (from bromate flour) are banned
because they have been linked to kidney damage, cancer and nervous system
damage. The major reasons for these policies is to ensure that Nigerians have
access to good quality foods. However, the extent of enforcement and
compliance) remains a big challenge as many of the foods are still seen in
Nigeria’s markets. There has been poor supervision and monitoring by food
safety officers, and the enforcement of food hygiene regulation has been weak
(Okojie and Isah, 2014).

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

 

Preference for body size may also affect dietary choices,
and quality. Although this is largely induced by local cultural perception, the
role of western culture in dietary choice and preference for body size cannot
relegated. Body size preference varies from one region (cultural setting) to another.
Some prefer big body size, while others prefer small body size.  Research shows that most people in the western
world prefer smaller body sizes, largely for health reasons. Even when they
have normal body weight, the desire to keep smaller (thinner) body size sometimes
still persist, particularly in females, and in places where thinness (not
leanness) is valued as part of  feminine beauty.
This body size preference perhaps underscores why some young undergraduate
females and secondary school students in Nigeria adopt dietary lifestyles that
enhance body thinness (Dike, 2009; Izevbigie and Owi, 2006).). That notwithstanding, preference
for big body size (fatness) is still highly appreciated in some cultural
settings in  Nigeria (Oloruntoba-Oju,
2007).  

 

The quality of diets in Nigeria, and some other African
countries are also being influenced by emergence of road-side restaurants and
street food vending/marketing. The roadside food vending is an ancient
(age-long) practice and has become a viable small and medium scale enterprise
along the food chain (Okojie and Isah, 2014). Road side food vending provides
ready-to-eat, relatively cheap meals by sellers in streets and public places for
immediate consumption (Fellows
and Hilmi, 2011 ).  Urbanisation is one of the major factors
responsible for the rapid growth of street foods and road side vending in many
developing worlds (Okojie and Isah, 2014). Patronizing roadside food marketers
is gradually becoming a way of life among people, particularly, the low income
earners in major cities and busy suburban areas in Nigeria. At different motor
parks, popular junctions and business areas, these food vendors set up their
business in the open spaces. The business has seen the influx of many vendors,
because the startup is low.

Some vendors make
food available in packs, while others offer it bare. Those who fall in the latter
category are people who usually sell by the roadside or are hawkers. Those who usually
patronize food road side joints, and street food hawkers do so because the low
price.  Others are people on the move
(travelers) who may be compelled by hunger needs to buy food from road size
restaurants or and hawkers.  Issues about
the quality and safety of food sold by these ubiquitous outlets have always
been of great concern. Presence of flies (here and there), carbon fumes and
dust which settles on foods make the foods unhygienic for human health (Oyeneho
and Hedberg, 2013). In most cases, wastes water and garbage are disposed very close
to restaurants and road side foods which serves as breeding site for vermins
and microbes (FAO, 1990; Fellows
and Hilmi, 2011; Proietti
et al., 2014); thus
increasing the risk of consumers to having typhoid, dysentery, diarrhea and
cholera (FAO, 2007; Nunes et al., 2010; Rane, 2011).  

Despite the inherent
dangers, consumers still patronize the venders. Many consumers in the country
still give less caution to the dangers associated with eating or buying foods
in these areas. The arguments is that the food sourced from these outlets are
cheaper, convenient (ready-to-eat foods), and price of food purchased is
according to the requests of the customers, compared to some restaurant meals
where prices are given and relatively on the high side.       

Lack
of basic infrastructure such as portable water and electricity is another
factor that influence the food environment and the quality of diets at home,
restaurants and road side food vendors cites. For example, lack of electricity
or its inadequate supply will affect refrigeration (storage), sanitary and
hygienic conditions of foods (and by extension the quality of foods). .Stable supply of electricity is
important for storage, processing and preparation, preservation of food within
the households (and during transport).  Availability
of staple power supply (electricity) reduces the time cost of preparing
traditional foods which ordinarily more labour intensive. This has implications
of food choices and dietary quality for the family.

 

The
lack of running water or potable water storage at most of the food vending sites
makes food safety and quality almost impossible, as water is needed for washing
utensils, hands and for proper food preparation procedures (Omemu and Aderoju,
2008; Proietti et al., 2014). Combining functions such as food preparation and
services as well as handling of money by the same vendor may also undermine
food quality and safety (Nurudeen et al., 2014; Alves da silva et al., 2014).