The cells to fertilise the egg(s) after sexual intercourse.

The female reproductive system

(https://goo.gl/images/LuxDbW)

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The Ovaries: The ovaries are the female organs
responsible for housing and creating ovum (egg cells). The ovaries are a
whitish colour and located at the side walls of the uterus.

Follicles in the
ovaries: The follicles in the ovaries are the part of the female
reproduction system which are responsible for secreting hormones during the
menstrual cycle. The ovarian follicles are a rough sphere shape. They have
around 400,000 follicles, each follicle has the potential to release a ovum
(egg)

Yellow body:
Yellow body also known as corpus luteum is the yellow hormone-secreting part of
the ovaries. During ovulation it matures and releases the egg, which then will
wait to be fertilised.

Fallopian Tubes:  The fallopian tubes are two narrow
tubes lined with tissue known as ciliated epithelia. These tubes lead from the
ovaries into the uterus. The fallopian tubes carries the eggs from the ovaries
to the end of the fallopian tube where it waits to be fertilised.

Uterine cavity:
Inside the uterus, there is a lining which allows females to conceive and
maintain a pregnancy. The uterine cavity is around 27 to 32mm in size, it’s a
rough t-shape.

Endometrium:
The endometrium is a mucous membrane which lines the womb (inside of the
uterus). This part starts to develop blood vessels which prepares the body for
pregnancy.  When there is no foetus
forming or baby present then the endometrium will shed, this is why females
have menstrual bleeding. 

Cervix:
The cervix is the lower part of the uterus. When non-pregnant, the uterus is
roughly 2-3cm long. The cervix is a cylindrical shape and runs the whole length
of the vagina. The cervix connects all the parts of the uterus together and
acts as the passage for the male sperm cells to fertilise the egg(s) after
sexual intercourse. The cervix consists of two parts the internal orifice and
the external orifice.

 

 

 

 

The
menstrual cycle

 

(https://www.menstrupedia.com/assets/quickguide/physiology/physiology-menstruation.jpg)

The first stage is known as the menstrual phase.
The menstrual phase starts on the first day of the female’s period.  This part of the cycle lasts for 5 days.
During this part of the cycle the uterus sheds the inner lining of soft tissue
and blood vessels leaves the body in the form of menstrual fluid, 10 to 80
millilitres of blood is lost. Abdominal cramps start and this is due to the
contraction of the uterine and abdominal muscles, this function removes the
menstrual fluid from the vagina.The follicular phase is the part of the cycle
where the pituitary gland secretes a hormone which stimulates the egg cells to
grow, the egg then begins to mature into a follicle, and it takes 13 days for
the egg to mature. During this stage the follicle secretes a hormone which
makes the uterus develop the endometrium (soft tissue) and blood vessels which
line it. This phase starts on day one and ends on day 13.

                                  

On
the 14th day is the start of the ovulation phase, the pituitary
gland secrets a hormone, this causes the ovary to release the matured egg, the
egg is then released into the fallopian tube and are carried by the cilia of
the fimbriae. The cilia are fine hairs on the fimbria and the fimbria are
located at the end of the fallopian tube (close towards the ovaries) and are
described to be like fingers. The
luteal phase begins on the fifteenth day of the cycle and lasts till the
twenty-eighth day. The egg is released and stays in the fallopian tube 24
hours. If the egg is not fertilised then the egg disintegrates. A hormone is
secreted which causes the uterus to retain the endometrium and get used up by
the end of the menstrual cycle.  

 

Hormones released during the menstrual
cycle

(https://womeninbalance.org/about-hormone-imbalance/)

 

 

Oestrogen –
Oestrogen is one of the female sex hormones and its role in the body is to grow
and mature the uterine lining and mature the egg before ovulation. Oestrogen is
produced primarily in the ovaries but smaller amounts are produced in the
adrenal glands and fat tissues.

Progesterone –
Progesterone is another female sex hormone and is responsible for balancing the
effects of Oestrogen, Progesterone is produced after ovulation and is present
throughout the second stage of the second half of the cycle.

Testosterone –
Testosterone is present in females but as a much lower level. It is produced by
the ovaries and the adrenal glands, testosterone helps women maintain their
muscle mass and bone strength, it also increase sex drive.

 

Oestrogen and
Progesterone levels are low on the first few days of the menstrual cycle. The
amount of oestrogen and progesterone signals the pituitary gland to produce the
Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH), FSH is the hormone which matures the
follicle. Around day 7 Oestrogen and progesterone starts to increase which
prepares the uterus for pregnancy. The high Oestrogen levels cause Luteinizing
Hormone (LH) which causes the egg to be released from the follicle. The corpus
luteum secretes progesterone and oestrogen which further prepares the uterus
for pregnancy. If the egg is not fertilised by day 28 then the oestrogen and
progesterone levels drop.

 

The male reproductive system

(https://anatomybodydiagram.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/structure-of-penis-with-labeled-diagram-penis-anatomy-diagram-anatomy-organ.png)

The Seminal Vesicle: The seminal vesicle is a pair of glands
which sit by the bladder. Seminal vesicles secrete the fluid which composes up
semen. These glands are connected to the testicles.

Testicles: The testicles are an organ located in the scrotum
(a loose sack of skin which protects them). The testicles contain the
testosterone and sperm-producing cells. The testes are also responsible for
producing male hormones (androgens), this organ produces around 6mg
(milligrams) of testosterone a day and 20,000 sperm cells per minute.

The prostate: The prostate is responsible for secreting
prostate fluid which is one of the components of semen. The prostate muscle
helps move seminal fluid into the urethra during ejaculation.

Urethra: The urethra is the part of the male reproductive
system responsible for transporting and disposing of urine as well as carrying
the semen throughout the body.

Corpus cavernosum: The corpus cavernosum is the body of the
penis which fills and contains the blood while the male has the erection. The
body is made up of a sponge-like erectile tissue.

Corpus spongiosum: The corpus spongiosum is the tissue which
surrounds the urethra.

The glans: The glans, other known as the head of the penis

 

Contraception problems

What is Menopause?

Menopause is the term when a
women stop having their periods. Menopause happens between 45 and 55 years of
age, however the average age for women to reach menopause is 51 in the UK,
according to the NHS. Menopause occurs when the female’s oestrogen levels
decline. Menopause can occur before the age of 40 and happens to around 1 in
every woman according to NHS.

How does menopause affect contraception?

Due to menopause affecting women
in their 40s-50s, Women tend to have children early on into their life, however
those who to choose to children later,