Tata it does in an atmosphere free from fear

Tata commenced the operation in 1907 and today are the
world’s second most diversified steel producer with operations in 26 develop
and developing countries and commercial presence in over 50 countries. Tata
steel are the 11th largest steel player globally, producing 25.9MnT
finished steel and employing ~ 77,000 people. Tata steel is in India, one of the largest private
sector integrated steel producers with a turnover of ?38,000 crore (5,912 million). Tata Steel value
chain extends form mining to the steel finished goods in the metal industry. Vision “Tata
Steel aspire to be the global steel industry benchmark for value creation and
corporate citizenship” (Tata Steel Annual report 2015-16, 2017). Mission “Consistent
with the vision and values of the Founder Jamsetji Tata, Tata Steel strives to
strengthen India’s Industrial base through the effective utilization of staff
and materials. The means is envisaged to achieve this are high technology and
productivity, consistent with modern management practices. Tata Steel
recognises that while honesty and integrity are the essential ingredients of a
strong and stable enterprise, profitability provides the main spark for economic
activity” (Tata Steel Annual report 2015-16, 2017) . Overall, the Company seek
to scale the heights of excellence in all that it does in an atmosphere free
from fear and thereby reaffirms its faith in democratic values (Tata Steel
Annual report 2015-16, 2017). In this individual
written assignment will cover definition of green growth, the fourth industrial
revolution, green growth policies, the impact of green job and innovation for
both Tata Steel operate in UK and India, and last but not least is the
challenges of green growth in India.

 Green Growth”Green growth means fostering
economic growth and development while ensuring that natural assets continue to
provide the resources and environmental services on which our well-being
relies” (OECD, 2017). Green growth is not a replacement for sustainable
development. Rather, it provides a flexible and practical approach for
achieving solid, measurable progress through its economic and environmental
pillars. The focus of green growth strategies is ensuring that natural assets
can deliver their full economic potential on a sustainable basis (OECD Policy,
2011). That potential includes the provision of critical life support services
– clean air and water, and the resilient biodiversity needed to support food production
and human health (Harmens, 2013).
 Natural assets are not infinitely substitutable and green growth policies
take account of that (OECD, 2017).In June 2009, the OECD Council
Meeting at Ministerial Level (MCM) agreed on a Declaration on Green Growth
(OECD, 2009). The announcement invited the OECD to develop a Green Growth
Strategy to achieve economic recovery and environmentally and socially
sustainable economic growth (Bleischwitz, 2007). The MCM Declaration
extensively characterizes “green growth policies” as strategies empowering
green investment in order to simultaneously contribute to economic recovery in
the short term and help to build environmentally friendly infrastructure
required for a green economy in long term. Green JobThe
definition of a green job varies from person to person, but all agree that
green jobs are jobs linked to the environment and clean energy. Some believes
that green jobs can be defined as jobs that involve protecting wildlife or
ecosystems, reducing pollution or waste, or reducing energy usage and lowering (Ge,
et al, 2016) carbon emissions, as well as jobs in industries and sectors that
produce environmentally beneficial goods and
services (Wei, 2008). Some conclude that green jobs are created directly
through activities that benefit the environment (Saladin, et al., 2012). Moreover, green
jobs are jobs linked with energy conservation or increasing the supply of renewable
or clean energy sources (Konopnicki, 2009). If we consider the wider impact of
green growth policies, green jobs including direct, indirect and induced jobs.
The concept of green collar jobs to some extent is similar to green jobs, and
green collar jobs are jobs created by firms and organizations that aim to
improve the environmental quality (Pinderhughes, 2006). It should be noted that
the influence of green jobs is debated (Morriss, et al, 2009).

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 The Industrial RevolutionThe fourth industrial revolution, or
4IR, is the fourth major industrial era since the initial Industrial revolution
of the 18th century (Schwab, 2016). The fourth industrial revolution
is described by Schwab (2016) as a range of new technologies that are fusing
the physical, digital and biological worlds, and impacting all disciplines,
economies, and industries. Schwab (2016) has associated in with the “second
machine age”. In terms of the effects of digitalization and the artificial
intelligent (AI) on the economy, but added a broader role for advance in
biological technologies.  Schwab (2016)
sees as part of this revolution “emerging technology breakthroughs” in fields
such as AI, robotics, the internet of things, autonomous vehicles, 3D printing,
quantum computing, and nanotechnology.

 Stages of Industrial Revolution (Figure 1, Appendix 1)First
industrial Revolution First industrial
revolution took place from the 18th and 19th centuries in
the Europe and America. It was a period again when mostly agrarian, rural
societies became industrial and urban (History, 2009). The iron and textiles
industries, along with the development of the steam engine, played central
roles in the first industries revolution (Schwab, 2016).Second
industrial Revolution                                                                     The second industries took place between 1870 and
1914, just before World War I (Richmond, 2016). It was a period of growth for
pre-existing industries and expansion of new ones, such as steel, oil, and
electricity for the use of electric power to create mass production. The major
production advances during this period included the telephone, light bulb,
phonograph and the internal combustion engine (Engelman, 2015). Third
Industrial RevolutionThe third industrial revolution or the Digital
revolution, refers to the advancement of the technology from analogue
electronic and mechanical devices to the digital technology available today (Schwab,
2016). The Era started during the 1980s and is ongoing. Advancements during the
third industrial revolution include the personal computer, the internet, and
information and communications technology (ICT).Fourth
Industrial RevolutionThe fourth industries revolutions builds on the
Digital Revolution, representing new ways in which technology becomes embedded
within societies and even the human body (Davis, 2016). The fourth industrial
revolution is marked by emerging technology breakthroughs in a number of
fields, including robotics, AI, nanotechnology, quantum computing,
biotechnology, and the internet of things, 3D printing and autonomous vehicles
(Marr, 2016).

 Green Growth in United Kingdom             The UK government released its climate action
masterplan on how to decarbonise all sectors of the UK economy starting from
2020 and on how to reduce its carbon emissions by 57% by 2032. The Clean Growth
strategy constitutes a requirement of the UK government, under the Climate
Changes Act and includes measures to cut emissions from building, transport,
electricity, and heating. From 2015 till 2021 the UK government will have
allocated in total £2.5 billion of public finding in low
carbon innovation.Government
policy on green growthThe government develop a package of
measure to support businesses to improve how productively they use energy and
will consult on this in 2018, with the aim of improving energy efficiency by at
least 20% by 2030 (HM government, 2017). The government will undertake the
evaluation of Climate Change Agreement to inform any successor scheme from
2023. The government will also build on existing scheme such as Energy savings
opportunity scheme (ESOS), undertaking a comprehensive assessment of its
effectiveness and consider any future reforms (HM government, 2017).Government
Incentives given for green growthAs highlighted by the
Committee on Climate Change (2016), greenhouse gas removal (GGR) technologies
are likely to have an important role to play in offsetting difficult-to-cut
emissions, by removing greenhouse gases from the air. The Government will
consider the scope for removing barriers and strengthening incentives to
support the deployment of GGR,
to position the UK at the leading edge of GGR development. This includes the considering
options for developing a carbon offset market and exploring how UK timber could be used in
construction. We are also considering how best to take forward carbon
capture, usage and storage (CCUS),
as set out in ‘Improving Business and Industry Efficiency and
Supporting Clean
Growth’. We will conduct a study on how GGR activity can be
incentivised, in
the UK and in other countries, which will help us develop policy and accounting
frameworks fit for the future. And we will also consider how legal, financial
and regulatory frameworks could support the rollout of GGR technologies at
scale. We will develop our strategic approach for GGR technologies, including
consideration of whether to reprioritise existing innovation spend, in light of
these pieces of work.    

Tata
Steel UK Tata Steel UK is one of Europe’s leading
strip steel manufacturers with steelmaking facilities located at Port Talbot in
Wales, as well as steel rolling and processing facilities in the Midlands, the
North East and Wales. The steel we produce goes into a wide range of markets,
including automotive construction, energy, power, and packaging. An infinitely
recyclable material, steel is at the very foundation of our society, and can be
found in everything from the buildings in which we work to the cars we drive. Over
the past decade, £1.5
billion has been invested in our UK operations, enabling us to help our
customers achieve their ambitions in their own markets, by providing steel
products and services that give them the edge. Impact on Green GrowthThe UN carbon
legislation threatens to impose huge additional cost on steel industry. Beside
there remains a great deal of uncertainty about the level of further unilateral
carbon cost rises that the UK government is planning” (Dunkley et al, 2011).
The heavy manufacturing companies are penalised by European laws forcing them
to buy carbon permits costing about £15 per tonne of emissions (European
Commission, 2017). Tata is forced to make cuts in its loss-making
products division because of the downturn in the construction sector, where it
supplies steel. As for Tata the Indian-owned steel maker said levies on heavy
manufacturing were partly behind its plans to close or mothball part of its
Scunthorpe plant, where 1,200 jobs being cut, as well as a further 300 roles at
its sites on Teesside (Dunkley et al, 2011).  Strategic Choices for
Tata Steel UK toward green job         Tata Steel UK forges merger with ThyssenKrupp
for the secure a lifeline for European assets. The proposed joint venture that
will create Europe’s second largest steel maker (after ArcelorMittal) provides Tata
Steel an opportunity to stem further bleeding of its heavily loss making
European operations by transferring some €2.5 billion of term
debt and about 18,000 workers to the merged entity to be based in Amsterdam
(Nagarajan, 2017). ThyssenKrupp’s European steel business, expected to be merged soon with
its counterpart at Tata Steel, will get a boost from the auto industry’s shift
towards electric vehicles, a senior executive as the group said (Osburg, 2017).
Osburg (2017) said electrical steel strip was instrumental in
helping extending ranges for electric cars, a key source of
concern among prospective buyers, adding the growing need to protect batteries
inside cars also required stronger steel. 

 Green Growth in IndiaFor many developing
countries, current climate policies plan relying heavily on financial and
technical assistance from developed countries. Additionally, many developing
nations are not solely concerned about climate change, but also prioritize
expanding energy access to their peoples in order to move toward a better
standard of living. One country that faces this problem is India, for its
economic status, population challenge and energy issues. It is the fourth largest
greenhouse gas (GHG) emitter, accounting for 5.8 percent of global emissions.
India’s emissions increased by 67.1% between 1990 and 2012, and are projected
to 52 grow 85% by 2030 (Shukla et al, 2015).Yet, India faces a major energy
issue: nearly 300 million people that do not have access to even one electric
light bulb (Shukla et al, 2015). This is even more challenging because the mean
rate of population growth in is 1.9% (Table 1, Appendix 2), which is relatively
high when compared to developed nations (Ebinger, 2016). How India balances expanding electricity
access and economic targets while at the same time achieving its climate
targets will indeed be paramount to the future of global climate change action.
Thus, the answer to my research question is will provide a clear picture to
achieve the twofold challenge of green economic growth. Ebinger (2016), in the
Brookings policy brief even asserts that, “If India fails, Paris (Agreement)
will fail”.Government Policy on Green Growth India Recognizing
the vulnerability, India has already take steps to increase its sustainability,
including reducing energy demand and improving energy efficiency (Ebinger,
2016). For example, it has launched
efforts to upgrade its generation and transmission assets and optimize its
power mix by increasing its use of non-fossil fuels. It has taken steps to
reduce energy consumption by residential and industrial users, improve fuel
efficiency in road transportation, and increase the percentage of forested land
in the country, which will increase its CO2 absorption capacity as well as
prevent soil erosion (Gupta et al, 2012). According
to Ganesan (2016), through the term “Green Industrial Policy” (GIP) is not
prevalent in Indian Policy discussion, it refers to the mix of steps taken to address market failures in
promoting green/clean technologies and solutions along with other more
classical policies to promote industrial development with a focus on renewable
energy (RE). The policies that have been the focus can
broadly be categorised into overarching, direct and indirect policies.
The Electricity
Act, 2003 and the subsequent National
Electricity and Tariff Policy laid out the principles that
would incentivise and enable a rapid scaling up of RE. While the Parikh
et al (2006), was not very bullish about the prospects of RE, it certainly
highlighted the demand-supply gap that would prevail with regard to
conventional energy sources.The declaration of India’s National
Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) was yet another watershed
moment for RE as it formally recognised the role of RE in mitigating climate change
and laid the foundation (National Solar
Mission, 2013).Government IncentivesIndia’s energy demand has been growing rapidly as a
result of the industrial growth as well as the rise in household energy
consumption (Shailesh, 2013). India ranks 6th in
the world in terms of energy demand accounting for 3.5% of the total world
commercial energy demand in 2001 (Parikh
et al, 2006). Most of the energy requirements in
India are being fulfilled by fossil fuels that further increase our dependency
on imports. To overcome the issue of energy security, Government of India is
supporting increasing participation of renewable energy sources in the total
energy mix.As per the latest announcement, there are a number of
financial incentives and subsidies by the Ministry of New & Renewable
Energy (MNRE). These incentives and subsidies are applicable for a number of
renewable energy products available in the market. Details of the products with
their average cost and subsidies are in (Table 2) (Appendix 3). 

 Tata Steel IndiaTata
Steel India has an end-to-end value chain that extends from mining to finished
steel goods, catering to an array of market segments. The Jamshedpur facility
has an annual crude steel capacity of 10 MnTPA and the Kalinganagar plant has a
capacity of 3 MnTPA (Varma, 2017). We embrace different skills, celebrate
diversity and strive for constant innovation, while continuing to act
responsibly in the use of natural resources. Impact on Green
Growth in IndiaThe impact of Tata Steel from the green growth is for the
packaging material that Tata Steel uses. Tata steel has completely replaced
wood by recyclable and reusable EPS saddles from stuffing export containers.
This is the first time an Indian Steel maker used recyclable material for
stuffing containers. This move has resulted in saving of 50 m (linea) of timber
per container. It has also increased the efficiency by increasing the container
floor area, allowing for significant saving in freight costs (Varma, 2017). In
addition to the above initiatives, Tata Steel has also installed a Rain Water
Harvesting System (RWHS) with zero discharge facility at the Faridabad stockyard
(Varma, 2017). Similar
system is also being planned at Chennai, Kanpur and Ludhiana stockyards. At the
same time, by using transparent sheet in the roof, Faridabad stockyard has
reduced the electricity consumption by 80%. Similar plans are also there for
Chennai and Kanpur stockyards. Also, Tata Steel has used Fly Ash Bricks instead
of fire clay bricks for new constructions at the stockyards as the former are
environment friendly (Varma, 2017).Strategic Choice for Tata Steel India
toward Green JobIndia’s
second largest steel maker, Tata Steel recently commissioned the country’s
first 3 megawatt solar power project located at an iron ore mine in the State
of Jharkhand. The solar power project, the first at an iron ore mine in India,
will help Tata Steel replace a part of the electricity it consumes from the
grid or diesel based generators to power operations at the mine.This
project was commissioned jointly by Tata Steel, Tata Power Solar and Tata Power
Trading Company all part of Tata industrial conglomerate. The power generated
from the project will be purchased by Tata Steel at the fixed tariff. As the
operations is still new, the mine draws electricity from the grid to carry out
operations, if the electricity is unavailable the mine will shifts to
diesel-based power generators.    “We have constantly looked at opportunities to exploit
renewable energy sources. This is yet another milestone in our quest to become
a sustainability driven company, committed to exploring clean energy solutions.
Renewable energy is the best way of mitigating the impact of climate change,”
said T V Narendran, Managing Director, Tata Steel India.The implementation
of this solar power project, Tata Steel will be able to offset at least a part
of the fossil fuel-based electricity coming from the grid functions using
diesel. In addition, Tata Steel India also installed several solar powered
lights in the company.

According
to Tata Steel India (2017), the capacity shall be set up in two phases 15
megawatts and 100 megawatts. In the first phase, 10 megawatts capacity shall be
set up near a smelter facility while a 5 megawatts project will be set up close
to zinc mine. With the fast fall in solar module prices, it makes financial
sense for these large energy-intensive companies to switch to solar power and
reduce dependence on costlier electricity. Additionally, using solar power will
also help them meet the renewable purchase obligation.