T 2.664 7 July 4.770 0.432 3.572 8 August

 

T

 

Mr.TVeereshTGonal1T,TAssistantTProfessor,TDepartmentTofTElectricalTEngineering,TVachanaTPitamahaTDr.P.G.H.TCollegeTofTEngineeringT&Technology,TVijayapur(Karnataka),TIndia.TEmail:[email protected]

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AbstractT—TtheTaimTofTthisTpaperTisTtoTdesignTofToptimalTsizingTofTphotoTvoltaic/TwindThybridTenergyTbasedTpowerTsystemTforTruralTelectrificationTinTtheTkeyTareaT(JamnyTVenTBarwani)TMadhyaTPradeshTIndiaTwhereTutilityTsupplyTcostTisTrealThighTdueTtoTlimitedTconsumerTandThigherTtransportationTcost.TTheTchosenTcaseTstudyTpresentsTaTpowerTdemandT111kWh/d.TTheTsystemTisTdesignedTandToptimizedTasThybridTenergyTbaseTpowerTsystemTinTparliamentaryTprocedureTtoTfullTfillTtheTexistingTuser’sTpowerTrequireTatTaTminimumTpriceTofTenergy.TWindTspeedTandTsolarTradiationTdataTobtainedTfromTIndianTMeteorologicalTDivisionT(IMD)TforToptimizationTsoftware,TElectricTRenewableT(HOMER)TthroughThybridToptimizationTmodelThasTbeenTusedTinTtheTsimulationTprocess.TTheTsimulationTbasedToptimizationTgeneratesTtheTbestToptimizedTsizingTofTwindTandTPVTarrayTwithTdieselTgeneratorsTforTruralThybridTbaseTpowerTsystem.TThisTsystemTisTmoreTProductiveTrelativeTtoTtheTcostTandTenvironmentalTpleasantToverTtheTcommonTsourcesTofTdynamism.TItTbringsTdownTtheTwholeTnetTcurrentTprice,TOperatingTcharge,TandTrunningTchargeTandTalsoTcutsTtheToutputTofTcarbonTdyeToxideT(co2)TandTotherThazardousTgases.TItTisTanticipatedTthatTifTtheTpenaltyTcostTofTco2TandTotherTgases,Tconsider,TtheThybridTschemeTisTfriendlierTforTenvironmentalTaspect.

KeywordsT—TSolarTPVTArrayT(SPA),TWindTTurbineTSystem,THybridTSystem,TOptimization

I.TINTRODUCTION

DevelopingTconsistentTandTpriceTeconomicalTpowerTsolutionsTforTtheTworldwideTgrowthTofTelectricityTintoTruralTandTremoteTareasTpresentsTaTextremelyTdifficultTdrawback.TTheTlocationTofTgridsTfarTawayTfromTruralTandTremoteTareasTandTtheirTextensionsTcanTbeTveryTcostly.TTheTproposedTworkTconcentratesTprimarilyTonTtheToptimalTsizingTofTPhotovoltaicT/TwindThybridTenergyTsystemTforTruralTelectrificationTbyTusingTHOMERTsoftware.TTheTprojectedTsystemTgivesTdesignTideaTforTthoseT

Dr.TG.S.Sheshadry2,TProfessor,TDepartmentTofTElectricalTandTElectronicsTEngineering,TS.S.I.T.,TMaralur,TTumukurT(Karnataka),TIndia.TEmail:[email protected]

PlacesTwhereTtheTpopulationTisTlessTandTlocationTofTsiteTisTfarTawayTfromTtheTgridTextensionTandTitTalsoTincreaseTtheTreliabilityTandTreducesTtheTenvironmentalTissuesTbyTusingThybridTrenewableTenergyTsystemT(HRES).TTheTmainTsourceTofTelectricityTisTfossilTfuelTwhichTproducesTharmfulTgasesTsuchTasTco2,TcarbonTmonoxide,TsulphurTdioxideTandTnitrogenToxideTetc.TdueTtoTtheseTgasesTenvironmentTpolluted.TForTtheseTreasonsTresearcherTandTdevelopmentsTmotivatedTtoTincreaseTtheTuseTofThybridT(PV/Wind)TenergyTsystem.T4SeveralTmodellingTstudiesTonTPV/WTTpowerTsystemThaveTbeenTconducted.T1TExamineTtheTinfluenceTofTsomeTsizingTparametersTofTgrid-connected,ThybridTsystemsTwithTloadTconsumptionTandTenergyTstorage.

TFig.T1THybridTpowerTsystem

Katsigiannis,T3TCalculationTofTgreenhouseTgasTdischargeTisTbasedTonTlifeTsequenceTanalysisTofTeachTsystemTcomponent.TAkbar,56assessesTtheToperationTofTdifferentTartificialTintelligenceT(AI)TtechniquesTforToptimumTsizingTofTaThybridTsystemTtoTcontinuouslyTmeetTtheTloadTdemandTwithTtheTminimalTtotalTannualTpriceT,AmongTthem,TSharafi,2,TimplementedTanTMulti-objective,TabsoluteTbestTpotentialTofThybridTrenewableTenergyTsystemsTvictimizationTPSOTsimulationTbasedTmostlyTapproach.TInTthisTpaperTtheTsystemTdesignTworkingTwithTtheThybridTsystemTisTalternatingTcurrentTlinked,TwhereTtheTdieselTgeneratorT(DG)T7TandTtheTrenewableTenergyTsourcesTallTareTconnectedTtoTtheTACTsiteTofTstructureTasTshownTinTfigT1.THOMERTsoftwareTisTappliedTinTthisTpaperTforTtheTdesignTofThybridTsystem.TThisTsoftwareTisTdesignTbyTNationalTRenewableTEnergyTLaboratoryT(NREL).TThisTsoftwareTisTusedTforTsizingTandToptimizationTtool.THOMERTsoftwareTsystemTcontainsTvarietyTofTenergyTpartsTsuchTasTPV,Twind,TgeneratorTetcTandTevaluatesTappropriateToutputTaccordingTtoTcostTandTavailabilityTofTresourceT8.HOMERTanalysisTrequiresTinformationTaboutTresources,TEconomicTconstraints,TandTmethodsTofTcontrol.TTheTinfoTalongTtheTingredientTtype,TtheTnumberTrequiredTCost,TandTeffectiveness,Tlong-termTsurvival;TSensitivityTanalysisTcanTbeTperformedTwithTvariablesTaTrangeTofTvaluesTratherTthanTanTexactTnumber.

II.TMETHODOLOGYTTheTproposedTdesignTcomprisesTofTsolar-photovoltaicTarrayT(SPA)TsystemTandTwindTturbineT(WT).THybridTsystemTwithTpowerTconvertor,TDGTandTbatteryTsquareTmeasureTfurtherTintoTtheTsystemTasTaTbackupTunitTandTactTasTaTstorageTarrangement.TThisThybridTrenewableTenergyTschemeTisTdesignedTarrangementTforTtheToffTgridTarrangementTatTremoteTfield.TThisThybridTrenewableTenergyTsystemTisTdesignedTarrangementTforTtheToffTgridTarrangementTatTremoteTarea.TToTresolveTtheTbestTpossibleTsizingTandTworkingTstrategyTforTHRESTHOMERTsoftwareTisTusedTbasedTonTthreeTmostTimportantTtasksTwhichTareTsensitivityTstudy,TsimulationT(reproduction)TandToptimization.TTheTaccompanyingTsegmentTtalksTaboutTonTtheTthreeTessentialTundertakingsTofTtheTHOMERTprogramming.

TA.TSimulationTHOMERTreproducesTtheToperationTofTtheTmethodologyTfocusedTaroundTtheTdeviceTchosenTbyTtheTfashioner.THybridTenergyTsystemThasTdifferentTnumberTofTcomponentTinTdifferentTsize;TenergyTbalanceTcalculationTisTdoneTbyTHOMERTonTbasesTofTdifferentTconfigurationTofTsystem.TInTthisTpaperTWT,TPVTstructure,TaTDGTwithTbatteryTandTpowerTconvertorTselectedTforTanalysis.TItTthenTassessesTtheTbestTsuitableToutlineTwhichTcanTgiveTtheTelectricTrequires.TTheTmostTfeasibleTconfigurationTofTsystemTbyTHOMERTsimulationTisTdependTonTinstallingTcost,ToperationTandTmaintenancesTcot,Tfuel,TinterestTandTreplacementTcost.

B.TSensitivityTAnalysisTTheTmethodTofTHOMERTsoftwareTforTsensitivityTanalysisTwillTrepeatTtheToptimizationTprocedureTofTeveryTchoiceTofTsensitivityTvariablesTforTtheTHRES.TTheTsensitivityTvariableTisTsuchTasTtheTpriceTofTdieselTfuel,TwindTspeed,TandTsolarTradiation.TTheTmostTpossibleTarrangementTforTHRESTwillTbeTaccordingTtoTleastTamountTtoTgreatestTsumTnetTpresentTcost.TTheTbasedToptimalTconfigurationTsystemTchoosesTwhichThasTlowestTtotalTnetTpresentTcost.TC.TOptimizationTAfterTsimulationTofTwholeTpossibleTvindicationTofThybridTenergyTsystemTarrangementToptimizationTprocessTisTinitiated.TAccordingTtoTtotalTnetTpresentTcostTfromTlowestTtoThighestTHOMERTdisplayTaTlistTofTHRESTconfiguration.TSumTnetTpresentTcostTisTchangedTdependingTonTcompassionTvariableTthatThaveTselectedTbyTtheTfashionable.T

 

 

IIITRENEWABLETENERGYTRESOURCES

ATJamnyTVenTvillageTBarwaniTsiteTrenewableTenergyTresourceTisTanTimportantTfactorTforTdevelopingThybridTsystems.TAccordingTtoTIMDTWindTandTsolarTenergyTareTavailableTinTmanyTpartsTofTIndiaTinTlargeTquantitiesT9.TTheseTenergyTsourcesTareTdiscontinuousTandTnaturallyTobtainable;TbecauseTofTtheseTissuesTourTprimaryTpreferenceTtoTPowerTtheTvillageTbaseTpowerTstationTisTrenewableTenergyTsourcesTlikeTwindTandTsolar.TClimateTdataTforTparticularTsiteTrenewableThybridTenergyTsystemsTareTimportantTfactorsTtoTstudyTtheTpossibilityTofTtheTformerTtheTconfidentialTinformation,TwindTandTsolarTenergyTresourcesTdataTforTtheTvillageTareTtakenTfromTNASAT10.T

A.   
ElectricalTloadTdataT

TheTaverageTestimationTofTdailyTenergyTconsumptionTisT111T(kWh/day)TandTpeakTloadTisTfoundTtoTbeT14KW.TTheTinformationTwasTcomputedTforTtheTentireThourTbasisTdailyTelectricalTloadTconditionTofTaTlodgingTofTaTvillageTofTBarwaniTdistrict.TTheTnameTofTtheTblockTisTjamnyTVenT(latitudeT22.71TandTlongitudeT75.85).TheTenergyTloadTdemandTofTthisTlocationTisTshownTinTfig.T2

 

Fig.T2TloadTdemand

B.   
SolarTenergyTresource:T

HourlyTsolarTemissionTinformationTwasTcollectedTfromTtheTenvironmentTBarwaniTJamnyTvillage.TLong-termTaverageTannualTresourceTscalingT(5.531)TtheseTfiguresTwereTconsidered.TAccordingTtoTsolarTradiationTphotoTvoltaicToutputTpowerTexistingTallToverTtheTtwelvemonthTisTshownTinTfigT(i),T(ii).TSolarTpowerTisThigherTinTsummerTseasonTcomparativelyTtoTwinterTseason.THereTsolarTinsulationTandTclearanceTindexTdataTshownTinTTableno.1

 

SlTno

Months

Insulation
(KWh/m2/d)

ClearanceTindex

WindTspeedT(m/s)

1

January

4.810

0.684

4.794

2

February

5.650

0.697

5.702

3

March

6.350

0.675

3.338

4

April

6.990

0.668

4.121

5

May

7.210

0.656

4.062

6

June

6.080

0.546

2.664

7

July

4.770

0.432

3.572

8

August

4.170

0.393

3.630

9

September

5.190

0.533

3.594

10

October

5.790

0.684

4.823

11

November

4.900

0.675

6.587

12

December

4.510

0.675

7.195

13

Average

5.531

0.598

4.500

TTableTno.T1

 

 

TFig3.T(i)TAverageTdailyTradiationTinTaTyear

 

Fig3.T(ii)TScaledTdataTaverages

B.TWindTenergyTresource

TConfidentialTinformationTmayTbeTanToccurrenceTthat’sTassociatedTwithTtheTconnectionTofTair,TplentyTcausedTmainlyTbyTtheTdegreeTofTdifferenceTstarTheatingTofTtheTEarth’sTsurface.TSeasonalTandTpositionTvariationsTwithinTtheTenergyTarrivingTfromTtheTsunThaveTanTeffectTonTtheTstrengthTandTmannerTofTtheTwind.TPowerTfromTtheTwindTdependsTuponTtheTsweptTspaceTofTtheTrotaryTengineTbladesTandTthereforeTtheTcubeTofTtheTwindTspeedTWindTenergyThasTbeenTconsideredTasTshowsTpotentialTtowardTmeetingTtheTcontinuallyTincreasingTdemandTforTenergy.TTheTwindTsourcesTofTenergyTtheTalterationTprocessesTareTpollution-free,TandTitTisTfreelyTavailable.TATperiodicalTregularTwindTinformationTforTjamnyTVenTvillageTwareTtogetherTbeginningTenvironmentalTofTBarwaniTclimate.TWindTspeedTdataTshownTinTTableT1.T

 

IV.HYBRIDTENERGYTSYSTEMTCOMPONENTST

A.             
PhotovoltaicTeconomicTinformationTandTsolarT

SolarTPVTisTsimultaneousTinTseries.TWhenTtheTsunraysThitTtheTSolarTPVTarray,TitTproducesTelectricity.TTheTmagnitudeTofTphotovoltaicTarrayTarrangementTthatTusedTinTthisTsystemTisT0.280kw.TTheTprincipalTandTalternativeTcostTforTeachTcapacityTisT$1590TandT$1460Trespectively.TTheTlifetimeTforTthisTphotovoltaicTarrayTsystemTisT20TyearTwithTaTderatingTfactorTofT80%TandTgroundTreflectionTisT20%.TTheTarrayTslopeTangleTisTsetTtoT22.98TandTzeroTazimuthT(AZ)TcorrespondsTtoTsouthT(S),TandTpositiveTvaluesTconsultTwithTwest-facingTorientations.TTheTtrackingTsystemTforTPVTplantTisTignoredTyetTtheTimpactTofTtemperatureTisTconsidered.TCostTcurveTofTPVTshownTinTfig.4

 

 

TFig.4TcostTcurveTofTPV

 

Fig.T5TwindTresourceTmonthlyTaverage

 

B.Twind-turbineTinputTBWC-TEXCEL-RL/48TtypeTWTTelectricalTgeneratorTisTtakenTforTthisTproposedTHRES.TTheTratedTpowerTofTBWCEXCEL-RL/48T(XLR)TisT7.5kwTDC.TThisTWTTchangeTwindTenergyTintoTelectricalTenergy.TAccessibilityTofTenergyTfromTtheTWTTdependsTgreatlyTonTwindTvariations.TWTTcapitalTandTreplacementTandTmaintenanceTcostTareT$23220,T$1775TandT$480Trespectively.TItsTcenterTpointTandTanemometerTisTfoundTatT30TmeterTstatureTtheTlifetimeTofTaTturbineTisT20Tyear.TTheTmonthlyTwindTspeedTisTasTshownTinTTableTnoT1.T

C.TGeneratorTDieselTgeneratorT(DG)TisTutilizedTforTproposedTHRESThasTevaluatedTlimitTofT5kwTandTratedTspeedTisT1800Trpm.TGeneratorTdeliversTAC.TTheTcapitalTexpenseTandTsubstitutionTexpenseTofTtheTgeneratorTareT$15300TandT$14050Tindividually.TTheToperationTandTmaintenanceTcostTofTtheTgeneratorTisT$0.2/hr.TTheTDieselTworthTisTusedTforTsensitivityTanalysis.TAtTpresent,TdieselTpriceTisTapproximatelyT0.84$/LTandTforTaTgreatlyTremoteTareaTthisTcouldTincrementTupTtoT0.95$/L.TWhenThybridTrenewableTenergyTsystemTproduceTsufficientTamountTofTpower,TdieselTgeneratorsTworkTasTaTbackupTforTtheTsite.T

D.TBatteryTATbatteryTcollectionTmodelTisTpracticedTasTaTsupportTsystemTandTitTtooTkeepsTconstant.TTheTbatteriesTconnectedTinTparallel-seriesTformation.TTheTsortTofTbatteryTthatTutilizedTforTtheTframeworkTisTvisionT6FMT200DTmodelTwithTtheTratingTofT12V,T200Ah,T2.4kWh.TTheTpriceTforToneTbatteryTisT$212TwithTtheTreplacementTcostTofT$T212.T

E.TPowerTConverterTInTthisTproposedTHRES,TconverterTisTusedTwhichTmayToperateTeachTasTanTassociateTdegreeTelectricalTconverterTandTrectifierTlookingTatTtheTmannerTofTflowTofTpower.TSimulationTpurposesTtheTsizeTofTtheTconverterTisTtakenTasT5kWForTaT5TkwTframeworkTtheTestablishmentTandTsubstitutionTexpensesTareTtakenTasT$2400TandT$2350,Tseparately.TCostTanalysisTshownTinTFig.TTheTefficiencyTandTlifespanTofTaTunitTisTtakenTtoTbeT85%TandT15TyearsTrespectively.

V.OPTIMIZATIONTANDTRESULTS

TheTproposedTHRESTsupplyTpowerTtoTruralTareaTcontinuouslyTallTthroughTtheTyear.TForTanalysisTofTHRESTconsidersTfourTdifferentTsensitivityTvariablesTasTfuelTcostT,batteryTcostT,windTspeedTandTsolarTirradiation.TAnToptimalTsystemTloadTremoteTfieldTstationTthatTisTableTtoTmeetTtheTdemandTforThybridTsystemTconfigurationTisTdepictedTasTaTsolution.TEachTfeasibleTarrangementTandTformationTisTsimulatedTforTaTallTmonthTofTyearTperiodTonTtheTbasesTofThourlyTtimeTseriesTinformation.TTheToutcomesTfromTtheToptimizationTofThybridTelements,TtheToptimalTcombinationTofTrenewableTenergyT7.5KWTBWC-Excel-R/48,TtenT10KWTDG.TNPC,TcostTofTenergyT($/kWh)TandTinitialTcapitalTcostTareT$263,247,T$0.508TandT$60,770TrespectivelyTforToneTyear.TInTthisTparticularTcaseTsimulationTresults,TbestTfeasibleTsystemsTconfigurationsTlistedTaccordingTtoTincreasingTTNPC.TGrantingTtoTtheTinitial,ToperatingTandTcapitalTcostTbestToptimalTsetTofTcontourTbatteryTstorage,TsolarTandTdieselTsystem.TTheTbestTsolutionTprovidedTbyTHOMERTsoftwareThasTwindTturbine,TgeneratorTandTbattery.T

VI.CONCLUSIONT

InTIndiaTmoreTthanT65%TpeoplesTareTliveTruralTarea.TToTprovideTbetterTelectricityTservicesTgovernmentTinstalledTsubstation.TPowerTisTtheTprimaryTproblemTforTremoteTareaTbaseTsubstation,TforTtheTcauseTthatTtheTgridTexpansionTisTnotTfeasible.TForTtheseTareasTtheTproposedTHRESTisTtheTmostTviableTanswer.TSuppliesTforTruralTelectrificationTareTcostTcompetentTandTusableTallToverTtheTtwelvemonth.TTheTperiodTofTeachTsiteTinTorderTtoTpickToutTpossibleTarrangementTofTsubstituteTenergyTisTinvestigated.TAlternativeTenergyTsolutionsTareTusuallyTnotTusedTforTruralTelectrificationTtoday;Thowever,TanTactivelyTworldwideTisolatedTareaTisTassessed.TWithTtheThelpTofTPre-feasibilityTstudyTofTtheTphotovoltaicT(PV)TandTwindThybridTpowerTsystemTbasedTonTtheTIndianTsubstationTsitesTforTremoteTpowerTsolutionsTareTpossible.TDespiteTtheTfactTthatTtheTnetTpresentTexpenseTisThighTyetTtheToperationTandTupkeepTexpenseTareTlowTasTcontrastedTwithTdifferentTsourcesTofTenergyTsolution.TIt’sTpaybackTtimeTisTaroundT15Tyear.TTheTremoteTlocationTbaseTstationTpower-drivenTbyTtheTPV,TwindTwithTdieselTsupportTareTprovingTtoTbeTtheTmostTenvironmentallyTpleasantTandTcost-effectiveTsolutionsTforTseveralTdifficultTlocations.THRESTbaseTsitesTbenefitTtheTenvironment,TwhetherTtheyTareTplacedTinTextremelyTpopulatedTorTisolatedTregions.THybridTsystemTalsoTreducesTtheTco2TandTotherTharmfulTgasTreleasedTanTenvironment.

 

 

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