There are different types of shock. Distributive
shock, obstructive shock, cardiogenic shock, and septic shock, and most
commonly seen is hypovolemic shock. In general shock is when blood flow and
oxygen are both decreased. Distributive shock is associated with vasodilation
and is seen in anaphylaxis and heat stroke. Obstructive shock is identified as poor
circulation of blood returning back to the heart. It is often seen in patients
with GDV or pericardial tamponade. Cardiogenic shock is poor blood circulation
throughout the body. Arrhythmias and heart diseases are usually the cause of
this type of shock. Severe infections like parvovirus and pneumonia can lead
dogs and cats into septic shock. Hypovolemic shock is decease in blood
circulation and is seen in patients associated with trauma and hemorrhaging.
The most common type of shock that I
have seen is hypovolemic shock. Hit by cars are commonly associated with this
type. Patients that are in hypovolemic shock tend to have pale mucous
membranes, very weakened pulses, low blood pressure, and delayed capillary
refill time. After the patient has been hit, early signs include tackycardia,
anxious, and their breathing is usually labored. When the mucous membranes are
white, pulse is either weak or absent, tachycardia with irregular beat, change
in the respiratory rate, and low temperature.
Respiratory distress is a very
serious emergency. Respiratory distress is when fluid accumulates in the severely
inflamed lungs. Respiratory distress is also referred to as shock lung.
Respiratory distress patients usually leads to shock. Examples of causes are
pneumonia, smoke inhalation, severe infections, trauma, and aspiration. Patients
that are in respiratory distress usually have labored breathing kind of like
they are gasping for air, cyanotic mucous membranes due to lack of oxygen, fever,
coughing, open mouth breathing, and nasal discharge.
There are many different types of
poisons that dogs and cat can encounter with. Examples of poisons are
medications, flea and tick preventative, cleaning products, people food like chocolate,
grapes, and alcohol, and plants. The most common poison in dogs at our clinic
is bromethalin rodenticide which is also known as rat poison. Rat poison causes
increase pressure and fluid accumulation in the brain. Dogs that ingest it
usually shows clinical signs two to seven days after ingesting it. Clinical
signs of toxicity of the poison are seizures, weight loss, ataxia, paralysis of
the hind end, and muscle tremors.
Cats also can come into contact with
poisons just like dogs. The most common poison in cats at our clinic is
insecticide as in flea and tick overdose. The chemicals in the preventative suppress
the nervous system causing vomiting, excessive drooling, lethargic, ataxia,
seizures/tremors, dyspnea, and hypothermia/hyperthermia. Cats can also be very
aggravated and have bulging eyes.
Many dogs and cats experience some
kind of trauma in their lives. Examples of trauma includes hit by cars, animal
fights, falls, injury to the eye, spinal injuries, and soft tissue trauma. The
most common trauma in dogs that come into our clinic is soft tissue trauma.
Soft tissue trauma is injury to tendons, muscles, and ligaments. It does not
include bones or skin. Clinical signs of painful upon palpation, swelling,
limping, decrease appetite, lethargic, and excessive licking.
Cats common trauma injury that is
seen in our clinic is eye trauma. Ocular or eye trauma is from either blunt or
sharp forces. Examples of sharp injury trauma are branches, claws, and small
airborne objects. Parts of the eye that could be injured are the eyelids,
cornea, conjunctive, and sclera. Lacerations, displacement or tears, lacerations,
and abrasions. Blunt injuries is when a flat or dull item damages the surface
of the eye. Clinical signs of ocular trauma are pawing or rubbing the injured
eye, increase ocular discharge from the injured eye, painful, and color change
to the eye like cloudiness and redness. Cats tend to also squint, blink more,
and possibly the eye is closed.