RAFT Script (not meant to be performed) 9:00 a.m. Tuesday Morning; June 1stMom (Janet) walks into Susan’s roomWakes Susan upJanet: Susan, time to get up. Be downstairs in 5 minutes for your Chem lesson please.Susan: *groans and sits up* Give me a sec.Janet: I’m giving you 300 of them! *laughs hysterically*Susan: *with a sarcastic tone* Ha ha mom, super funny, greatest one yet.Janet walks out of the room and heads down the stairs, Susan not too far behindSusan: *taking a seat at the dining room table* What am I learning about today, mom?Janet flips through the book resting on the dining room tableJanet: Uhhh, Oh! here it is “Ion Formation and Electron Orbitals” sounds magical!Susan: More like boring.Janet: Don’t be so negative jeez.Susan: Whatever, can we just get this over with.Janet silently reads book for a few minutes, thinking of how to explain the topic to SusanJanet: Hm, I guess I’ll start with ion formation. Do you know what an ion is?Susan: *rolling her eyes* Of course, an atom or molecule that has gained or lost an electron.Janet: Type of electron gained or lost? Susan: Valence.Janet: And what are those?Susan: the electrons most likely to be involvled in a reactionJanet: Ooh girl, you’re on fire today!Susan smiles and shrugsJanet: What are the types of ions?Susan: *thinks for a minute* Positive and negative?Janet: Close, but they have actual names- Cation and Anion. Wanna guess which ones positive and which ones negative?Susan: Cation is positive, Anions negative?Janet: Spot on! Cation ions become positive when the atom loses electrons, causing there to be more of a positive charge in the atom- newly an ion- as a whole.Susan: So let me guess, anions become negative when the gain an electron because there is a more negative charge in the ion- more electrons than protons?Janet: Yes, you’re catching on fast! So to recap in case you forgot, what happens to valence electrons when an ion is formed.Susan: They are moved around, they are gained by one atom and given away by another.Janet: Correct! Ok do you know what oxidation or reduction means?Susan: Nope.Janet: Ok, well oxidation is either a full or partial loss of electrons, and reduction is the full or partial GAINING of electrons.Susan: And how does this relate to ion formation?Janet: *Flipping through book* ummm I don’t quite know, give me a second.Susan: Okay.Both sit in silence.Janet: Found it! Okay, so think about it, oxidation is losing electrons and what happens if you lose electrons?Susan: It turns into an ion, right?Janet: Exactly! It’ll turn into a cation, because there will be more protons than electrons (more of a positive charge than a negative). So then how would an ion form through reduction?Susan: Well, I’m pretty sure that an atom going through reduction would gain electrons and become an anion because there would be more electrons than protons.Janet: Great job! Let’s move on to electron orbitals.Susan: I thought we were done. *groans*Janet: Okay so I’m just gonna guess you don’t know what they are.Susan: That was a good assumption.Janet: Electron orbitals are the path an electron travels around the nucleus of an atom.Susan: So like the energy levels?Janet: Yes, but they’re still different things. Energy levels are the locations in which an electron with a specific energy value can be found within an atom, orbitals are the path it travels in.Susan: That makes sense. Janet: What are S, p, d and f orbitals?Susan: I have no idea.Janet: Well, each electron orbital has a number and a letter attached to it, the letter denotes shape and the number refers to the energy level of the electron.Susan: Okay….Janet: The S orbital has a sphere-type shape, it has the s, 2s, and 3s levels within it- each holding a certain amount of electrons. As you move up the orbitals the density of the electrons increases.Susan: And the p orbitals? Janet: With those they start off at 2p and coincide with the 2s levels. Although p orbitals point in a specific directionSusan: Okay that makes sense too.Janet: Once you get into the 3rd level, there are nine orbitals in all. 5 of those being the 3d levels: 3dxy, 3xz, 3dxy, 3dx2-y2, and 3dz2. Susan: What do the x,y’s, and z’s mean? Janet: They tell you which planes they lie in.Susan: And those planes being…Janet: The x-y, x-z, and y-z planes. 3 orbitals each have 4 “lobes” and each points between 2 of the axes. Susan: What about the x2 type ones?Janet: those look the same except the lobes run along the axes instead of in between.