MOUSA AHAMAD 1; BILAL
SAADA 2; QUSAI ALSHAMAILEH 3; MAHMOUD ABUSAMRA 4; AIDA A. AL AWAMLEH 5 .
University of Jordan , Faculty of Physical
Education, Department of Instruction and
The present study aimed to investigate the level of mindfulness and hand-eye coordination, strength among elite fencers, also to determine whether the gender differences in
mindfulness were existed, The subjects of this study consisted of sixteen elite fencers, Five Facet Mindfulness
Questionnaire (FFMQ) Arabic version used to
assess mindfulness ( FFMQ) , also hand grip dynamometer to assess strength and Hand-eye coordination manual dexterity to
measure hand eye coordination .
The results indicated that the level of mindfulness was moderated and
there is no statistically significant relationship between strength, Mindfulness
and hand-eye coordination. Furthermore, gender differences were observed
words: Mindfulness (FFMQ) , hand-eye coordination, Elite
Introduction popular press or the psychotherapy literature
Mindfulness in the past
decade has enjoyed huge surge in it’s popularity,
whether in popular press or in psychotherapy literature (Didonnaa , 2009 ; Shapiro & Carlson, 2009). Mindfulness of the
sport performance at the
last period has become one of the
most popular research. By increasing the critical component of peak sport performance , awareness , (Jackson &
Csikszentmihalyi, 1999; Ravizza, 2002), some of the researches have suggested
that mindfulness exercises may assist to generate
the flow or the state of the
complete focusing on the task or
event at hand. (Aherne, Moran, & Lonsdale, 2011; Kee & Wang, 2008) mentioned
that the hypothesized that mindfulness –
based on for sports are
effective for the reason that they help athletes to direct their attention
to the current athletic task, while when minimizing external distractions (
Gnardner and Moore 2012 ) .( Brown and Ryan , 2003) mentioned that they
found that the increase of mindfulness psychological will be by the increase of awareness of one’s current experience ( The similarities of mindfulness to the other psychotherapy – related constructs as an example for that mindfulness is similar to metallizaion (Bateman & Fonagy, 2004, 2006; Fonagy & Bateman, 2008), the development of the process of understanding
one’s own and others behavior in terms of the individuals’ feelings, thoughts ,
and the desires to both constructs emphasize the temporary, the subjective and
the fluid nature of the mental states and both of them are thought to influence
the effect of regulation and the cognitive flexibility (Wallin, 2007)
Five mindfulness facets can be mentioned as follow : the first point is that the observing that refers to noticing , sensing to thee experience which occurred at current time such as thoughts and emotions. The second element is describing , which refers to labeling the internal
experience with words. Lebow, J.
(2008). The third point is the acting with the awareness, that involves
focusing on persons activities at a certain moment as it opposes the mechanical
behaving. The fourth element is
the non-judging of the inner experience that refers to the taking of a non –
evaluative stance toward the private experience. The fifth point is the non – reactivity of the inner experience that refers to noticing thoughts and feelings without showing reaction toward
them ( Baer, et al., 2006).
The coordination of the hand – eye is used in many sports activities; especially in sports
like fencing. It’s a great sport which can improve the hand – eye coordination
(Kogler (2005) he explained that Fencing sport is one of the complex sports
also he explained that a good fencing performance can be achieved by advance
perceptual and cognitive abilities like attention of the coordination , making
of decision and visuospatial memory. Fencing needs the coordination
between the hands, the feet and the eyes. The side congruency of
the hand and eye preference is considered as an essential for efficient hand –
eye coordination which contains sighting and aiming. The researches have found
that the incidence of the left – eydness was 47% for the group that threw it
with by using their right hand and wrote by their left hand but the rate was
55% for the group that threw it with their left hands and wrote with their right hand . Porac C.
Another research contend that the hand and eye
preference on the opposite sides according to the body which leads to a better coordinated performance
especially for some sports such as boxing and fencing. These researches argue that the sighting eye
is controlled mainly by the visual centers in the hemisphere for the same side
of the head where the uncrossed optic fibers travel to the brain on the same
side of the hear which thought to be as a dominant processers of the visual
information hand movement which controlled by the hemisphere that controlling
the coordination actions. As an example for that is that if some one is left –
headed and right – eyed the right hemisphere alone will direct hand – eye
coordination. As a transfer of the information between the hemispheres is not
involved for the left _ handed right – eyed action ther (porac, 2016) .
Fencing is divided into three major branches depending upon
the weapons employed. The fencing is divided to three different types of
weapons used which are foils, sabers and epees. Just a few of the cognitive
studies focused mainly on various aspects of fencing such as mindfulness , hand
– eye coordination (Azemar. etal. 2007) , and also left handed versus right
handed athletes (Harris
2007). So about 90% of human beings used their right hands (right – handed) which means that the left – brain dominates for motoring skills
because of the wide majority of people are right – handed , Coon & Mitterer
( 2011, 2008).
Now the relationship in comparison between the mindfulness
and the cognition can be considered as an important toped of the research that
is only began recently to unravel. So the aim of this study is to determine the level of
mindfulness , hand eye coordination and the
strength of fencing player .Also To determine
whether the gender differences in mindfulness were existed within samples of fencing players. In addition to that
the current study
aimed to address differences of using one of the two hands at fencing regarding to hand eye coordination and strength.
hypothesize that the fencing players have a good mindfulness and strength, good
hand eye coordination
and there is
a gender and handedness differences regarding to hand eye coordination,
strength and mindfulness , in this study I will attempt to find the
relationship between both of the strength of mindfulness and the hand – eye
coordination among the elite fencers.
Material and Methods
Participants Study sample consists of sixteen national
fencers (Jordanian National Team), aged between ( 14 – 23) years 8 males (M = 16.87 , SD = 3.52 ) and 8 females ( M = 15.12 yr , SD = 2.03 ) .
Instruments and Procedure
The Arabic version of The Five Facet Mindfulness
Questionnaire (FFMQ) is used to assess mindfulness. It is consisted of a 39
items of higher scores that indicate the greater levels of mindfulness (Baer,
et al., 2006, al awamleh
2015). The five facets were observed described , acted with awareness, also;
non – judging of the inner experience and non – reactivity to inner
experience . we used a coefficient of an internal consistency so we can
determine the reliability of the Arabic version of the (FFMQ) in
accordance with the Cronbach ) alpha result. The coefficient of the internal reliability of the Arabic Version of the (FFMQ) indicated that the stability of the test was
acceptable. The significant level that was reached due to the reliability
values were (** 0.69) .
Hand grip dynameters was used for the measuring of the
maximum isometric strength for the hand and arm muscles. Because handgrip
strength is an important factor or element for the fencing players. Procedure :
the dynamometers must be held at the hand that should be tested. The arm should
be in the right angles and at the same time the elbow must be by the side of
the body. The dynamometer can be adjusted if that is required – as the base
should rest on the first metacarpal while the handle should be rested on the
middle of the four fingers. When the athlete is ready he should squeezes the
dynamometer with maximum isometric effort then this step will maintain for
about five seconds. During this step no other body movement is permitted.
Steadiness Tester Hole Type used to assess
Hand-eye coordination( Fig 2).
The athletes mission here is to hold a metal – tipped stylus
in a nine progressively smaller holes that differ in size as follow ((1.156;
1.125;0.5; 0.312; 0.187; 0,109; 0;093; 0;078; 0.0625) inches taking in
consideration not to touch the holes from the inside. On the other hand a
Silent Impulse Counter Model 58024C was used to detect any errors.
Hand-eye coordination manual dexterity 10 s
Measure by Steadiness Tester, Hole Type Model 32011
Fig. 2. Steadiness Tester, Hole Type, Model
All the tasks were
administered individually in the Jordan fencing federation, all the data were systematically
coded and subject to ” SPSS ” package .
The study was granted
approval from the University of Jordan, Jordan Fencing Federation and parents
of the sample, all participants gave informed consent and were fully debriefed
Results and Discussion
results indicate the values of means and standard deviation for the Mindfulness
(MS) scale. The higher score recorded on observing subscale. Whereas the lower
score is Non reactivity toward fencing players experience. Overall the level of
Mindfulness scales appeared to be moderate the results are included in table (1
) below. The
only explanation for that is the level of mindfulness was
there is no strategies to applied mindfulness
Table ( 1 ): Mindfulness
level of elite fencers N = 16 .
et al. (2011) found that the importance of mindfulness in concentration also
Competitive athletes record higher on the mindfulness subscale observing. The results can help sport psychologists when
delivering mental skills programs. Also understanding athletes differences in
mindfulness can help to make better decisions (Kee,
& Wang, 2008)
Table (2). Gender and handedness differences regarding
to hand eye coordination, strength variables of elite fencers
Male n = 8
Hand –grip right
Female n = 8
Male n = 8
Hand –grip left
Female n = 8
Male n = 8
Female n = 8
Male n = 8
Female n = 8
The current study was also interested whether
males and females report similar or different levels of strength regarding to
handedness According to the
T-test coefficients analysis. the result showed that there were no significant
differences in strength regarding to
right hand, were as significant differences
were found regarding to left hand
between gender category. On the other hand there are no significant
differences in hand-eye coordination between gender categories. To examine the
question that investigated the relationship between mindfulness, hand-eye
coordination and strength table 3 shows the Pearson’s correlation coefficients
of mindfulness and hand-eye coordination and strength of elite fencers. Our findings here do not prove any
significant association between mindfulness, hand-eye coordination and strength
of elite fencers,
Table (3): relationship between mindfulness and
hand-eye coordination and strength of elite fencers
Acting with awareness
Hand –grip right
Hand –grip left
In this study, the focus was
mindfulness of elite fencers and the handedness differences for the eye hand
coordination, strength. The researchers suggested that the differences of
mindfulness of athletes must be further investigated. In addition to that , the
influence of variables that was taken in consideration such as the gender, eye
– hand coordination and the strength experience
must be examined to offer better insight for the relationship between
We would like to thank fencing
federation in Jordan for a grant to support this research and the university of
Jordan faculty of physical education.
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