LITERATURE slightly open and air conditioner is switched on

                      LITERATURE REVIEW

In this Chapter we will discuss about all the case
studies related to our project done across the globe it could be according to
the methods used, it could be on ergonomics and many more.

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Case Studies on Ergonomics: (2017)

1: Experiment Study on the Thermal Comfort inside a
Car Passenger Compartment

 

With
the popularity of cars in to the family, more and more people pay higher
requirements for the thermal comfort of car passenger compartment. The thermal comfort
of the person in car passenger compartment has become more important due to
their increasing mobility leading to more time spent by people inside the car.

This
article mainly focuses on factors affecting the people sitting inside the car
two experiments were conducted like temperatures were noticed on ventilation
and on air conditioner when driving. The window was slightly opened and air
conditioner was switched on as well the affect on the temperature was very
small after many measurements were taken it was proven that when driving in a
car the windows of the car is slightly open and air conditioner is switched on
it provides us the best environment and passenger compartment inside the car in
summers.

Comfortable thermal environment can remove fatigue and
improve the mood for long drives , it can also improve work efficiency and
driving safety.

Ergonomics:

Case study No 2: (2017)

An Analysis of the impact of driving
time on the drivers behavior using probe car data

 

2: Drivers
fatigue is an important factor affecting many road accidents. It is noticed
that many accidents on roads occur just because of driver fatigue, they tend to
drive for longer periods of time and they end up making a common mistake which
leads them to a road accident.

 

Proper rest must be taken after
several hours in long drives they conducted experiments in which they collected
probe data about such issues occurring due to the fatigue on roads.

 

A Rapid increase in the number of ITS
technologies enables us to analyze that what is going to be the driver behavior
through probe car data provided. It shows that continuous driving affects the
condition of the driver significantly while driving continuously. It is
proposed that a driver must take rest after every 5000{s} approximately.

 

In order to kill this issue they are
trying to design an alarm warning in cars while in long drives that particular
alarm will start and the driver will be informed that it is now time to take
some rest .

 

Ergonomics:

Case Study No 3: (2017)

A car- accident rate index for curved
roads: A speed choice-based approach

 

3: This
article is all about driving cars with rapid speeds on curved roads and their
consequences in the shape of car accidents. This can be defined as the car
entering the curve with the speed exceeding the safety speed of the curve will
eventually result in car accident.

 

The aim of this particular Article writing
is to underline the advantages that we will get because of the proposed index
by driving simulation experiments with perfection, for the purpose of comparison
with existing indices. The results show that attaining a normal speed that
reduces the difference between the perceived speed and maximum safe speeds is
the best way for reducing speeding accidents in curves.

 

They have applied zero risk theory in
their work they proposed that entering curves with higher speeds has a risk of
hitting the other car in the curve as well. They proposed that driving at day
time is far easier than night time so speed for driving at night must be less
than driving at day time. They took 15 undergraduate students and 15 graduates
having different driving experiences and they took their experiments on
different days with different timings and concluded that average safe speed for
entering curves is 85 to 90 km/hr and this ratio varies from place to place and
curve to curve.

 

They proposed that curves with radius
of 200 m to 300 m there were more accidents, and lack of warning material on
such curves resulted in major accidents.

 

Ergonomics:

Case Study No 4:  (2015)

Human factors and Ergonomics in
Transportation Control Systems

 

4:
This case study totally focuses on work experience in the UK, USA, Canada and
Japan this paper highlights the evolution of Human Factors (HF) and ergonomics
in the railroad from a practitioner’s point of view.

 

Applications of HF are described in
this paper and the new technologies and their affects on HF are proposed in
this particular case study. HF specific points on railroads and control systems
are described. HF moving towards automation in the near future is described.

 

There is now a greater responsibility
on the operator, to remain vigilant and react efficiently, when intervention on
automation is required in both the cases with in the control room and driver
cab environments.

 

This paper illustrates the importance
of HF, how it is important to highlight the error occurring in work place and
to be able to predict for future on the basis of HF.

 

It proposes that major advanced trains
and control systems can be designed on the basis of human factor which will be
error free, which will provide greater efficiency, less time will be wasted in
repetitive tasks and optimization in greater shape will be achieved and
economically everything will be handled with care and keeping in mind health
and safety and worker capability.

 

Ergonomics:

Case Study No 5:  (2015)

Ergonomics Management with a Proactive
focus

 

5:
This paper focuses on the study of pro activeness of the Ergonomics in
different aspects of the work place like employee complaints, employee
absentees from the work, number of accidents occurring in the workplace, and
diseases occurring to the people due to the work.

 

When organizations do not plane for
such situations they haven’t done their home work and they aren’t prepared for
such conditions so they will be vulnerable in such situations. In this case
study a team of 9 people were assigned the task of tackling such issues arises
in Work place.

 

They did their research and brought up
solutions for the problems and they design different strategies and new project
proposals. They performed all the possible risk assessments and identified the
hazards in order to safety for the workers.

 

Certain trainings were evaluated in
order to provide them with proper tools for handling problems they learned how
to identify problems how to monitor them and then how to tackle those problems

 

This case study has already received
two awards for the best case study of the south region of Brazil. This was
beneficial for both the industry as well as the employ, it was the best
solution for risk management and employee and health and safety and it helped
in decreasing the absentees.

 

Anthropometric Measurements

Case Study No 6: (February 2017)

Anthropometric measurements for
ergonomic design of student furniture in India

 

6:
This paper fully concentrates on the measurements of engineering students in
India as furniture was designed for them on the basis of that measurement
taken. It was carried out to know about the health status of students as they
were sitting in their classes in poorly designed furniture which was causing a
lot of issues for them they were not able to attend classes for longer period
of time just because of the uncomfortable stature of the furniture.

 

That particular data was collected
with different kind of measurement tools, after data was collected than that
particular data was analyzed and further improvements were made and possible
error were corrected in the very beginning.

 

Than the authors came up with various
furniture designs in the classrooms which were best suitable for the students
and these designs were comfortable and they didn’t compromised on the quality
of the furniture. The dimensions which were taken were bench surface height,
bench depth and bench width, backrest height, backrest width and backrest angle
etc.

 

So implementation of such factors will
help in work capability, comfort ability, safety and will decrease muscular
disorders and will increase performance of students in terms of attendance. It
is the best example for students that do not compromise on poor stuff because
indirectly it effects the future endowers and basically it helps us in long
term and this message should be spread everywhere through different kind of
seminars in order to have people awareness

 

 

Anthropometric Measurements

Case Study No 7: (6th
International Conference AHFE 2015)          

Anthropometric Study to Understand
Body Size and Shape for Plus Size People at Work

 

7:
This paper has a great importance in UK as in the last research it has been
proven that 60% of the  adult population
in the UK  is overweight or classed as
plus size people, as the plus size people increased so the issues and incidents
with plus size people also increased significantly. These things in particular
equipment, uniforms, furniture and personal protective equipment were not
fitting them because they were the people of plus category.

 

This meant that most of the workplaces
were not suitable for plus size people as they could be excluded so only 40%
people were left and in these 40% there were woman infant children so it meant
that plus size people can’t be excluded so further study of anthropometric
measurements was required in order to fit plus size people in the working
arena.

 

They performed experiment in which
they took 20 plus size working participants 10 male 10 female aged 18 years and
other were recruited . Data was collected for weight stature and 12
measurements were recorded self measurements and researcher measurements as
well.

 

Data was analyzed using t-tests and
they found that the two methods of measurement (self and researcher) agreed
sufficiently closely for 11 of the 12 measurements. This made it possible that self
measurement method being utilized for data collection in an ongoing larger
scale anthropometric study in order to understand the body size shape and
capability  for plus size people at work
place in and industry.

 

 

Anthropometric Measurements  

Case Study No 8: (6th
International Conference on AHFE 2015)

Data Processing and Analysis for the
2012 Canadian Forces 3D anthropometric Survey

 

8:
This case study focuses on Canadian forces in this case study Canadian forces
were under consideration because through this 
anthropometric survey tools were designed for them, which were according
to their body structure.

 

This is the major 3D anthropometric
survey in which 2200 full body scans were conducted and other measurements of
the Canadian forces were conducted traditional measurements in order to design
equipments and to know about the complete structure and shape of their bodies
which will help in recruitment as well.

 

This case study provided a data sheet
which was helpful in landmark identification and statistical shape analysis and
the military personals were compared with the North American population as well
using the CAESAR data sheet.

 

This was the major case study after
few case studies which focused on only male this provided a complete base for
the human shape understanding. From this
model effective tools were able to be created for specifying and designing the
proper products that properly accommodated humans in every aspect.

 

And with case study they were able to
know about the body structures of people belonging to different regions, they
were able to compare and differentiate between people belonging to different
regions on the basis of their life style, the weather they encounter in their
area and the food they eat. 

Anthropometric Measurements

Case
Study No 9: (6th CIRP Conference CATS 2016)

Intuitive
Work Assistance by Reciprocal Human-Robot Interaction in the Subject Area of Direct
Human-Robot Collaboration

 

9:
This case study completely focuses on
human robot intervention or collaboration. On one hand in some particular areas
the employee is depended upon the robot and in certain areas the robot is
dependent on the employee and it requires certain ideas certain instructions
from the employee in order to carry out a task or work.

 

The
aim of robot collaborating with employee is to help out the employee in
assembly tasks. Before working with the robot the measurements and assessments
of the employee are performed in order to check the capability of the employee
speed of the employee which varies with age.

On
the basis of provided data certain moves of the employee are simulated and
everything else is analyzed to provide safety for the employee. The effect of
the employee on the robot depends upon the design provided by the user
interference. This positioning that is done of the different
particular components in that particular assembly is done by user-specifically
and it is done with the help of robot. On the other hand what happens that the
employer gets a graphical user interface which is best and it can additionally
adjust the position or it can also turn the components in control of the robot
by giving them some instructions.

 

This
case study has played a vital role because assembly of different components in
an industry is the most difficult task and secondly if something goes wrong the
complete product fails. Employee suffer a lot of stress due to this and work
load is immense upon them so with the help of robot doing this assembly tasks
solves all the issues and performs assembly with perfection and tasks performed
by the robot can be controlled by giving commands to the robot.

 

Anthropometric
Measurements

Case
Study No 10: (6th CIRP Conference CATS 2016)

The
Working Posture Controller Automated Adaptation of the Work Piece Pose to
Enable a Natural Working Posture

 

10:
In this case study an approach is
provided for the people who tend to sit in wrong postures and ends up having
fatigue and muscular disorders. This approach helps to prevent awkward working
postures by automatically assessing and optimizing analyzing the work place for
a given task in order to avoid any mishap.

 

The
system which helps people is knows as Working Posture Controller (WPS) and this
particular system what happens it moves the working piece according to the
natural position of the working person and places the component in the best
suitable place.

 

It
provides safety and helps to prevent a muscular- skeletal disorder this system
is able to propose an immediate response and does not require any special
skills or special knowledge. On the hand the proposed solution is personalized
according to the anthropometry of the current user.

 

This
system was designed to tackle fatigue and it was successful in doing that it
provided best possible results and It was a major success. Through this system
the false techniques were exposed and in future they are trying to improve this
method further more in order to provide more safety and optimization in work,
efficiency and economic results.

 

This
case study gives us the message to work more in future with industrial robots.

 

Methods
Used For Measuring Purposes

Case
Study N0 11: (Precision Engineering)

On
Machine Multi-Directional Laser Displacement Sensor Using Scanning Exposure Method
for High-Precision Measurement of Metal-Works

 

11:
In this case study they proposed the
importance of a multi directional triangulation optical system and scanning
exposure method for precise height displacement measurement of metal works,
they tried to say in this case study that it is difficult to measure metal
triangular surfaces with traditional laser.

 

They
claimed that reflection characteristic changes by position in the work place. Measurements
error arises even if we are measuring the position of same height. But this unique
efficient multi-directional triangulation optical system performs triangulation
and it depends on a lens array and that particular array consists of 4 lenses
and those are located in a certain cross.

 

With
this latest technology we can achieve high precision measurement even if the reflection
characteristic varies. They claim that their laser accumulates light from
different proportions and projects it in a beam form on the work place during
the image sensor exposure time.

 

Because
that particular shape of a spot image which is on the image sensor is basically
the sum of the reflected light from many different positions, and the benefit
of this is that measurement error due to measurement position is reduced at the
most. Our methods can be used to achieve on machine reflection measurement of
metal works with a target accuracy of±1?m.

 

In
this method the sensor is attached to the head of the machine tool in
experiments and tasks to be performed.

Methods
Used For Measuring Purposes

Case
Study No 12: (Dynamics and Vibroacoustics of Machines DVM2016)

Comparison
of Different Methods of Non-Contact Vibration Measurement

 

12:
This case study is all about practical
problems raised from vibration measurements and calculation are considered. There
are different methods for non contact vibration measurements laser vibrometer
and scanning vibrometer and comparison between each other as well.

 

Today
there is increase in the number of papers, concerned with the research and
design of dampers for shroud and anti-vibration shelves of aircraft gas turbine
engine blades. Choosing correctly the damper structure parameters is very
important to generate calculation methods of engine details dynamic. Shells are
also used widely in stator and rotor of aircraft engine.

 

 Calculation of vibration by any particular
software (ANSYS, NASTRAN etc) is very simpler and not very expensive. However
it is very difficult to apply the right boundary conditions. Vibrations of individual
detail and the same detail in engine.

 

It
facilitates us about the point that we can use user ID for the purpose of measurement
of vibration for the limited access directly in that particular engine and this
is the best possible option. Which they guess is a lot more correct than the
others.

It
also allows us for the implementation of boundary condition for the purpose of
software correction.